Galveston Island was a Slavery Empire founded by French Pirate, Jean Lafitte. He was financed by two brothers, Jewish Traders Joa and Morin de la Porta. They were known as Karankawa Traders and Supercargoes for Lafitte, growing incredibly wealthy and descimating the Indian population, all called Karankawa and subsequently a great many were called “African” or “Black Slaves. Pirate Jean Lafitte was targeted eventually by the U.S. Navy and fled Galveston in 1821 with his “Mulatto wife and son.”
•Karankawa were a collective, like the Coahuiltecan, of numerous Ethnic Native American Groups, called Karankawan, Clamcoehs, Coaques, the Coco, Copanes (Kopanes), Cujane (Kohanis); Guapitas; Carancaguansas (the source of the name Karankawa), Kronks and many other Nations. Their language was called Auia.
•Related Ethnic Group(s): Coahuiltecan and Tonkawa (also known as Wichita and Wacos)-They were later among the 5 civilized Tribes at Ft. Smith in 1865, which serve as the forerunner of the 1866 Treaties were. There were also Choctaws identified as Wichita and Lipan Apaches identified as Tonkawa.
•The term Karankawa has been popularly applied to a group of Native American tribes who had a common dialect and culture.
•Galveston Territory: They inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay to the present day Greater Houston area, then south toward Corpus Christi Bay.
•Tonkawa-The name Tonkawa is from the Waco term Tonkaweya, meaning “they all stay together.”
•Language: Belonging to the Tonkawan linguistic family, once made up of a number of small sub-tribes that lived west from central Texas and western Oklahoma to eastern New Mexico. They had a distinct language and were the leading tribe of their linguistic family.
•The Tonkawa were nomadic buffalo hunting people roaming from somewhere around what is now Hillsboro, Texas to the vicinity of present day San Antonio, Texas.
On June 19, 1865-General Granger Announced the End of Slavery at Galveston, Texas (a date referred to as “Juneteenth”).•Galveston was not just a random or haphazard place picked to announce the Emancipation of Slaves in Texas. It was a territory harboring a Slave-Trading Empire, refusing to give up Slavery and broke away from Mexico because Slavery had been abolished and insisted Texans free all Slaves within 6 months of settlement. The secession produced the Republic of Texas.•Indigenous Karankawa (large bands of many Ethnic Indian Nations) inhabited Galveston to Houston, Texas with affiliated Bands into Oklahoma and Kansas. The Galveston domain was known as Opata territory. The area included the terrain of Northern Mexico’s border state of Sonora, which included New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma, all essential parts of New Spain. It included the southern district of Coahuila y Tejas (aka Coahuila, Mexico). Texans refused to confederate with Mexico as long as it insisted upon allowing the Coahuiltecan State to exist as an Ethnic Indian State.•The aim of this pictorial is to demonstrate that the Karankawa Slave Trade had reduced Ethnic Native Americans to “African Slaves” for sale and that they too had been “freed” and/or received benefit from Juneteeth by its effect upon the Indian Nations to abolish Slavery by the subsequent 1866 Treaties and allowed Tribal Peoples from Texas and Oklahoma to rejoin in family groups.Juneteenth: Galveston Texas Indian CountryOn June 19, 1865-General Granger Announced the End of Slavery at Galveston, Texas. Our June 19th Holiday, Freedom Day, Emancipation Day, 2nd Independence Day was the most crucial event in Native American and African Hemispheric History, ushering in the conclusion of legal human Slavery in North America, a “peculiar” institution that shaped the dynamics of American Social Culture and Ethnic relations for all time. Slavery began in this country with Indigenous people captured by Europeans, and called “Indians. They also abducted and catastrophically destroyed natural African Civilization by transporting slaves across the Atlantic to America for use as laborers in their stead, for life.Indians, Africans and Moorish-Indian Colonies established within Indian Country before and after contact, were left to inhabit the legal-geographical super-culture of Indian Country, as a unique people and mixed Creole Tribal population comprised wholly of Ethnic Indians; Indigenous Natives, Africans, and Sundry Moors(Spanish, Berber, African) and their descendants. Whether they desired it or not, all were relegated to life outside of U.S. Colonies from rejected or denied American citizenship, despite the presence of treaty stipulations calling for voluntary U.S. Citizenship or Naturalization (Adams-Onis Treaty, 1821). All of whom from Massachusetts to California and Canada’s Great Slave Lake south to the southernmost point of Coahuila Mexico, were historically viewed as “Indian” or “Indian Negroes, “Half-Breeds,” “Creoles,” “Criollos,” “Mustees” and a litany of other names used by Whites, but all self-identified by many names, such as Hassanimisco, Muscogees, Mikasuki, Alachuas, Mascogos, Biloxis, Chatah, Tuscaloosa, Chalaki , Caddohadocha, Santee, Chicora, Yamasee, Washita, Hopi Mishong, Peracu, Deve, Dene, Aoui and many more appellations, from the point of contact. All of whom were summarily removed alongside other Indian Tribes, from the ancestral areas newly coveted by Whites, to confined reservations at the end of the Trail of Tears, as a result of the 1830s Indian Removal Policy.Galveston Juneteenth, served as the impetus needed for successful efforts to agitate for termination of slavery within Confederate Factions of the 5 Civilized Tribes at the end of the Trail of Tears, in Oklahoma Indian Territory. Confederates had been clashing with the factions of the Indian Nations remaining Loyal to the Union. So, three months later, on September 13, 1865 the 5 Civilized Tribes and affiliated Bands entered an historic agreement known as, the Treaty at Ft. Smith, causing an immediate cessation of the Civil War fought within the legal-geographical domain of Indian Country (Oklahoma Indian Territory). 9 months after Juneteenth (6 months after the Treaty at Ft. Smith), came the first of the Domestic Indian Treaties on March 21, 1866, performing the Humanitarian feat of freeing Ethnic African Ancestored Seminoles within Indian Territory. Following in succession came the Chickasaw-Choctaw Treaty (April 28), Creek Treaty (June 14) and the Cherokee Treaty, concluded July 19, 1866. Each Final Step gave rise to the culmination of what abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison referred to as, the “Genius of Universal Emancipation“ or Freedom that serves to free us all.The 1866 Treaties were necessary because so many remained enslaved long after the Emancipation Proclamation in territories lying outside U.S. possession. The new official law of the land (with the implementation of the 1866 Treaties) was that Slavery was illegal Countrywide (even within the legal-geographical domains of Indian Country, administrated by Indians). Africans were no longer possessions of Men; so neither Caucasians nor Indians could legally claim possession or ownership of Africans and Indians having African Ancestry, without breaking Federal Law. Thanks, to the Genius of Universal Emancipation begun as an announcement at Galveston, the majority of Slaves were free.The Treaty at Ft. Smith, Arkansas was an agreement written in language used verbatim (nearly word for word) by the 1866 Treaties enacted over a span of time ranging from 6 to 10 months after the first Juneteenth Celebration. Represented at Ft. Smith were the Full-Blood and Ethnic Tribal Bands of Union Loyalists, Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Euchees, Osages, Seminoles, Senecas, Shawnees, Quapaws, Wichitas, and Wyandottes. Note: Wichitas (comprised of Tonkawa, Wacos, Keechi, Caddos, others). All Indian Loyalists, repudiated the treaties made and concluded by Confederate factions of each Tribe with the “so-called Confederate States of America,” the terms of which required them to renounce their loyalty and allegiance to the government of the United States. The broken Treaties, coupled with the Union Victory made it necessary to effect new Treaties in 1866. Cessation of the Civil War and the desires of the Tribal Union Loyalists provided an excellent platform from which to execute new treaties tailor made to generously enfranchise the formerly enslaved ethnic Indian populace, now referred to by Whites, as “Freedmen“. So, we went from being Indian Negroes, Half-Breeds and Creoles, to simply, “Freedmen.” Adding to the confusion, were the Ethnic Colonies of Black Tribal People never having ever been Slaves, or whom had been freed from Indian Slavery more than a hundred years before, where also called Freedmen. As you will soon see, even descendants of full Blood Black Aboriginals, were lumped into the catch-all group, called “Freedmen.” On a side note: Black Hawaiians, (black-birded to places such as Australia) were known as Kanaka’s. They were subsequently referred to also as “Free Men” when they were deported from Australia back to Hawaii.Galveston IslandThere are few sensible excuses given for the poor treatment and diminished importance of Galveston’s true history, by American Historians. It is particularly curious given that the island’s beginnings were Native, where Caucasians profited handsomely from Slavery, Karankawa Trade (also known as the Cocos). The only plausible excuse to consider is that true history of Galveston reflects a strange consistency in the Ethnicity of original Native inhabitants, plunged into Slavery and removed, to became an obscure “Black” story suppressed and glossed over by European-American History.
The Descendants of Ethnic Tribal People Aim To Reclaim Our HistoryThe goal is to tell our own story from our unique perspective: If your image of Galveston is that it was an antiseptic, lackluster place and perhaps the very last landmass imaginable from which the message of Freedom should ring, then you will be surprised to learn that Galveston was not just a random or haphazard place picked to announce the Emancipation of Slaves in Texas. The selected place was by divine design. Euro-History contends that Europeans founded the first settlement on Galveston in 1816.The truth translated: Indigenous Karankawa (bands of numerous Indian Nations sharing common goals) inhabited Galveston Island. Their domain was Opata territory. The area included Galveston Island, as well as the terrain of Northern Mexico’s border state of Sonora, which included New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma, all essential parts of New Spain.In 1528 Spanish Explorer, Cabeza de Vaca and crew were shipwrecked on Galveston Island, calling it “Isla de Malhado” (“Isle of Doom” or “Isle of Misfortune”). During the charting of the Gulf Coast in 1785, Jose de Evia named the island, Galvez-town, after Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. (from July 23, 1746-November 30, 1786), a Spanish military leader and general of Spanish forces in New Spain who served as governor of Louisiana and Cuba, and as viceroy of New Spain. He succeeded his father Matias de Galvez y Gallardo (viceroy before him).In 1816, Joa de la Porta and his brother Morin, established the first European settlement on Galveston by financing the Pirate Jean Lafitte. The Europeans, Jao and Morin were born in Portugal of Jewish parentage and later became Jewish Texas Traders. In 1818, Jean Lafitte appointed Jao de la Porta as the supercargo for the Karankawa Indian Trade (meaning these Indians were sold into Slavery). Lafitte left Galveston Island in 1821, fleeing capture by the U.S. Navy. He fled with “his Mulatto Mistress and son.” The Jewish Slave Trader became a full-time operator. The Opatas; Karankawa were Coahuiltecans, Tonkawas, Wichita’s, Wacos and others, all were dark, sable and captives, conveniently converted to “African“ by paperwork of the Pirate Jean Lafitte and the Portuguese-Jewish Traders on Galveston.Although Galveston was a natural Ethnic Aboriginal Domain, it (and Texas) has had six nations claim its sovereign territory and flown its flag over Texas; (Flag #1). Spain (Flag #2). France (Flag #3). Mexico (Flag #4). Republic of Texas (where Galveston was pressed into service, as a provisional capital of the Republic of Texas, part of Washington on the Brazos in 1836). (Flag #5). United States of America (Flag #6). Confederate States of America (1861-1865).Euro-history contends that the formal Texas Declaration of Independence, served as harbinger of the Texas Revolution, solidifying a desire to secede from Mexico.The Texas Declaration of Independence was adopted during the Convention at Washington on the Brazos, March 2, 1836, resulting in establishment of the Republic of Texas.More to the point, history demonstrates that Texas did not want to be in league with the Mexican Indian Negro State of Coahuila. You see, the Texas Revolution and the Texas Declaration of Independence, was all about the formal removal of Texas from Mexican rule for 2 reasons important to Black Indians; 1. because Mexico had abolished Slavery and 2. Mexico allowed the Black Indian State of Coahuila to remain an essential part of the Mexican Union. White Texas Settlers were outraged at their connection to a Mexican Black Indian State. In fact, listed as a reason in the Texas Declaration of Independence, was the statement that Mexico “was in Union with the State of Coahuila” (Coahuila y Tejas) with the distant capital of Saltillo” The capital was later changed to Monclova.Slavery was outlawed in Mexico, and Texas being part of Mexico, meant that Texas Settlers were affected by the Mexican requirement that all persons moving into Texas, were to free all Slaves within six months of settling there (leading to a revolt among White Texans). The Governor of Coahuila y Tejas was induced into writing the President of Mexico to explain the importance of Slavery to Texas, and indeed received a temporary exemption from the rule.However, in 1830, the state of Texas was ordered to comply in full with the Mexican emancipation law, but the ever-so-crafty Texas colonists then converted their slaves forcefully to indentured servants with a 99-year term. It was a malevolent and immoral practice which the state outlawed in 1832.In 1834 the region was divided into three departments, Bexar, Brazos, and Nacogdoches. You are reminded that this was the hostile Republic the Black Oklahoma Seminoles later endured as they stealthily passed through in their bid to reach Mexico in 1849-1850 under John Horse, escorted and guarded by the Kickapoos. Texas Independence simply meant that Texans would continued to profit from Slavery as an attached territory to the United States until ordered to cease by General Granger in 1865. Note: You are also reminded that John Horse left 2 Bands of Black Seminoles behind in Oklahoma Indian Territory, with the full intention of returning to liberate them also. They inhabited the most interior aspect of the tribal settlements and were left behind in order to ensure the secrecy of their flight. When John Horse returned, he found that the remaining Black Seminoles had been sequestered and quarantined by the Seminole Nation to prevent them from leaving of their own free will. John Horse’s Band of Seminoles were hotly pursued by a Creek Nation Posse, because he left with sister Juana, the mother of children that had been fathered by the Creek Chief.Few modern people realize that Galveston Texas (Texas in general) began its rein as Indian Country, home to Karankawas, Coahuiltecans, Tonkawas, Wichitas, who are more recognizable as some of those affiliated Tribal Bands of Ethnic Aboriginal descendants participating in the Treaty at Ft. Smith.A great many of the Former Texas Indians called Galveston, Waco, Las Moras Creek, Del Rio, Nueces, Uvalde, Ft. Clark, Brackettville, Cow Bayou, Taylor, Whitewright, Grimes County, Wichita Falls, Paris and other Texas places, their ancestral home. Further, they were making Treaties that benefited and secured rights for Ethnic Natives, including the Southern Seminoles in Texas. Wichita Falls, Texas-the name is derived from the Choctaw Indians who were the original settlers of the area in the early 1700s. The name “wia chitoh,” meaning “big arbor,” was a description of the grass-thatched arbors in the Wichita’s village.” It lies 15 miles south of the border with Oklahoma and is officially part of the Red River Valley. These people were at Ft. Smith making certain war ended and that Ethnic Tribal People kin to them in Oklahoma and Texas, were free and included in prosperity plans for all Indians.Ethnic (Black) Seminole Settlements founded (or inhabited) in the Texas Republic and along the U.S./Mexico Border by Chief John Horse’s Band of Seminole Negro Scouts: The Band stopped at Burnett, traveled on and founded settlements at Las Moras Creek, and Brackettville. They even settled the areas that would soon become Ft. Clark and Ft. Duncan. As for crossing over into Mexico, the Black Seminoles received/or settled; Hacienda El Nacimiento-(El Nacimiento de los Negroes)-On October 16, 1850; John Horse’s Band of the Seminoles received a land grant from the Central Mexican Government. Assigned area at the headwaters of the San Rodrigo and San Antonio Rivers in the Rio Grande District, State of Coahuila, thirty miles above Piedras Negras. The Mexican Government gave them “four sitios de Ganado mayor and other irrigatable property in the Hacienda El Nacimiento.” (a sitio is a unit of pasture land amounting to 1,711 hectares, one hectare being equivalent to 2.47 acres). Grant: In the Santa Rosa Mountains on the headwaters of the Sabinas river, twenty miles northwest of Santa Rosa, eighty-four miles southwest of Piedras Negras. On July 26, 1852, they (Black Seminoles) were formally granted the promised sitios de Ganado mayor at Nacimiento, additionally, they were given four other plots in Durango, under the same conditions as the agreement of 16 October 1850.” In 1936, A commission was established by the Departamento Agrario to study the matter. The officials reconfirmed the Ethnic Black Seminole Mascogos rights to their Nacimiento holdings and allotted them an additional 2,892 hectares of pasture land because some of their property had been taken away by adjacent haciendas. On September 21, 1938, President Lazaro Cardenas signed a decree that was published in the Diario Oficial of November 30, 1938 ratifying both the original grant and the extra hectares. The Black Seminole Mascogos firmly possessed their Nacimiento property. They do so to this day. Monclova Viejo-Established March 3, 1851. (Now Cuidad Acuna) Located across from Del Rio and close to Guerrero below Piedras Negras. (Guerrero, “Warrior”). Black Seminoles were also at Cozoyoapan and Laguna de Parra. El Moral (north of Piedras Negras)–(Established 1850). Following their forced emigration to Mexico in 1850, the immigrants stayed at El Moral, just north of Piedras Negros (across from Eagle Pass), while Wild Cat’s band of Seminoles stayed in San Fernando de Rosas. The Black Seminoles were also settled at Durango; Morelos; y Buena Vista-a few miles downriver from Nacimiento; La Navaja; Rancho del Rincon;Laguna de Parra-(Located in Southwestern Coahuila); Hacienda de los Hornos-(Located in the district of Viesca); Hacienda de San Marcos; Hacienda El Burro; and Matamoros-(Across the border from Brownsville, Texas).
JuneteenthJuneteenth is of immense importance to our combined collective peoples. It serves as Commemoration of a Texas Event that demonstrated that the man-made borders could no longer be imposed to separate the free from the enslaved. It’s concept weighed on the conscience of our Indian ancestors who dared to then say, set them free, so that we may all be free! May The Genius of Universal Emancipation and Enfranchisement be the hallmark of the future of America. On that day fateful day, June 19, 1865 Union Major General Gordon Granger read General Order #3 to the people of Galveston, Texas. General Order #3 stated; “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages.”But thankfully, the freed people rejected the advice to remain quietly where they had been forced to work and labor for free. They were free and freedom meant free to walk away, to never look back and be exceeding joyful upon the occasion. This is precisely what they did. It was a crucial moment in this nation’s history and our people praised God, packed their bags and moved on to beseech the Indian Nations, “to let my people go.”1865 Treaty at Fort Smith: Chickasaw and Choctaw Treaty, Article 3: “the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations respectively shall have made such laws, rules and regulations as may be necessary to give all persons of African descent, resident in the said nation at the date of the Treaty of Fort Smith, and their descendants, heretofore held in slavery among said nations, all the rights, privileges, and immunities, including the right of suffrage of citizens of said nations…” Perhaps there is ample space and time during Juneteenth commemorations to mourn all those that lost the battle to achieve Freedom during their lifetime, but we must always hold on to the Freedom we have. Sovereign Freedom (particularly for Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminoles, and Moors) we must continuously build and strengthen our Nations. We don’t belong to other men. We have every right that all honest and upright men and women have to enjoy freedom by breathing new life into the historic past occupation, lives and stories of our ancestral people and converting it into inspiration.We have a right to turn the salty water of tears shed here at the end of the Trail of Tears, into joyful life-affirming bread of heaven in Oklahoma, Tatil Coya, for the North American Kings of the Sun, the children of the Great Sun.Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, invite you to come visit the inspired exhibits and collections related to Ethnic Indians of the Americas, showcased by the Leona Mitchell Southern Heights Heritage Center and Museum at 616 Leona Mitchell Blvd in Enid, Oklahoma 73701, to get the rest of the story.Hikia Tuscaloosa! Stand Up Black Warriors!Support Ethnic Indian Sovereignty and the campaign to Nationalize Our Juneteenth Holiday!Yakoke! Thank You! Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman