Juneteenth: Galveston Texas Indian Territory

August 22nd, 2011

Slide6

Slide33

  

Galveston Island was a Slavery Empire founded by French Pirate, Jean Lafitte. He was financed by two brothers, Jewish Traders Joa and Morin de la Porta. They were known as Karankawa Traders and Supercargoes for Lafitte, growing incredibly wealthy and descimating the Indian population, all called Karankawa and subsequently a great many were called “African” or “Black Slaves. Pirate Jean Lafitte was targeted eventually by the U.S. Navy and fled Galveston in 1821 with his “Mulatto wife and son.”
  

Karankawa were a collective, like the Coahuiltecan, of numerous Ethnic Native American Groups, called Karankawan, Clamcoehs, Coaques, the Coco, Copanes (Kopanes), Cujane (Kohanis); Guapitas; Carancaguansas (the source of the name Karankawa), Kronks and many other Nations. Their language was called Auia.
  

Related Ethnic Group(s): Coahuiltecan and Tonkawa (also known as Wichita and Wacos)-They were later among the 5 civilized Tribes at Ft. Smith in 1865, which serve as the forerunner of the 1866 Treaties were. There were also Choctaws identified as Wichita and Lipan Apaches identified as Tonkawa.

The term Karankawa has been popularly applied to a group of Native American tribes who had a common dialect and culture.
  

Galveston Territory: They inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay to the present day Greater Houston area, then south toward Corpus Christi Bay.

Tonkawa-The name Tonkawa is from the Waco term Tonkaweya, meaning “they all stay together.”

Language: Belonging to the Tonkawan linguistic family, once made up of a number of small sub-tribes that lived west from central Texas and western Oklahoma to eastern New Mexico. They had a distinct language and were the leading tribe of their linguistic family.

The Tonkawa were nomadic buffalo hunting people roaming from somewhere around what is now Hillsboro, Texas to the vicinity of present day San Antonio, Texas.
  

 

 

On June 19, 1865-General Granger Announced the End of Slavery at Galveston, Texas (a date referred to as “Juneteenth”).
Galveston was not just a random or haphazard place picked to announce the Emancipation of Slaves in Texas. It was a territory  harboring a Slave-Trading Empire, refusing to give up Slavery and broke away from Mexico because Slavery had been abolished and insisted Texans free all Slaves within 6 months of settlement. The secession produced the Republic of Texas.
Indigenous Karankawa (large bands of many Ethnic Indian Nations) inhabited Galveston to Houston, Texas with affiliated Bands into Oklahoma and Kansas. The Galveston domain was known as Opata territory. The area included the terrain of Northern Mexico’s border state of Sonora, which included New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma, all essential parts of New Spain. It included the southern district of Coahuila y Tejas (aka Coahuila, Mexico). Texans refused to confederate with Mexico as long as it insisted upon allowing the Coahuiltecan State to exist as an Ethnic Indian State.
The aim of this pictorial is to demonstrate that the Karankawa Slave Trade had reduced Ethnic Native Americans to “African Slaves” for sale and that they too had been “freed” and/or received benefit from Juneteeth by its effect upon the Indian Nations to abolish Slavery by the subsequent 1866 Treaties and allowed Tribal Peoples from Texas and Oklahoma to rejoin in family groups.
 
Juneteenth: Galveston Texas Indian Country
On June 19, 1865-General Granger Announced the End of Slavery at Galveston, Texas. Our June 19th Holiday, Freedom Day, Emancipation Day, 2nd Independence Day was the most crucial event in Native American and African Hemispheric History, ushering in the conclusion of legal human Slavery in North America, a “peculiar” institution that shaped the dynamics of American Social Culture and Ethnic relations for all time. Slavery began in this country with Indigenous people captured by Europeans, and called “Indians. They also abducted and catastrophically destroyed natural African Civilization by transporting slaves across the Atlantic to America for use as laborers in their stead, for life.
 
Indians, Africans and Moorish-Indian Colonies established within Indian Country before and after contact, were left to inhabit the legal-geographical super-culture of Indian Country, as a unique people and mixed Creole Tribal population comprised wholly of Ethnic Indians; Indigenous Natives, Africans, and Sundry Moors(Spanish, Berber, African) and their descendants. Whether they desired it or not, all were relegated to life outside of U.S. Colonies from rejected or denied American citizenship, despite the presence of treaty stipulations calling for voluntary U.S. Citizenship or Naturalization (Adams-Onis Treaty, 1821). All of whom from Massachusetts to California and Canada’s Great Slave Lake south to the southernmost point of Coahuila Mexico, were historically viewed as “Indian” or “Indian Negroes, “Half-Breeds,” “Creoles,” “Criollos,” “Mustees” and a litany of other names used by Whites, but all self-identified by many names, such as Hassanimisco, Muscogees, Mikasuki, Alachuas, Mascogos, Biloxis, Chatah, Tuscaloosa, Chalaki , Caddohadocha, Santee, Chicora, Yamasee, Washita, Hopi Mishong, Peracu, Deve, Dene, Aoui and many more appellations, from the point of contact. All of whom were summarily removed alongside other Indian Tribes, from the ancestral areas newly coveted by Whites, to confined reservations at the end of the Trail of Tears, as a result of the 1830s Indian Removal Policy.
Galveston Juneteenth, served as the impetus needed for successful efforts to agitate for termination of slavery within Confederate Factions of the 5 Civilized Tribes at the end of the Trail of Tears, in Oklahoma Indian Territory. Confederates had been clashing with the factions of the Indian Nations remaining Loyal to the Union. So, three months later, on September 13, 1865 the 5 Civilized Tribes and affiliated Bands entered an historic agreement known as, the Treaty at Ft. Smith, causing an immediate cessation of the Civil War fought within the legal-geographical domain of Indian Country (Oklahoma Indian Territory). 9 months after Juneteenth (6 months after the Treaty at Ft. Smith), came the first of the Domestic Indian Treaties on March 21, 1866, performing the Humanitarian feat of freeing Ethnic African Ancestored Seminoles within Indian Territory. Following in succession came the Chickasaw-Choctaw Treaty (April 28), Creek Treaty (June 14) and the Cherokee Treaty, concluded July 19, 1866. Each Final Step gave rise to the culmination of what abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison referred to as, the “Genius of Universal Emancipation“ or Freedom that serves to free us all. 
The 1866 Treaties were necessary because so many remained enslaved long after the Emancipation Proclamation in territories lying outside U.S. possession. The new official law of the land (with the implementation of the 1866 Treaties) was that Slavery was illegal Countrywide (even within the legal-geographical domains of Indian Country, administrated by Indians). Africans were no longer possessions of Men; so neither Caucasians nor Indians could legally claim possession or ownership of Africans and Indians having African Ancestry, without breaking Federal Law. Thanks, to the Genius of Universal Emancipation begun as an announcement at Galveston, the majority of Slaves were free.
 
The Treaty at Ft. Smith, Arkansas was an agreement written in language used verbatim (nearly word for word) by the 1866 Treaties enacted over a span of time ranging from 6 to 10 months after the first Juneteenth Celebration. Represented at Ft. Smith were the Full-Blood and Ethnic Tribal Bands of Union Loyalists, Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Euchees, Osages, Seminoles, Senecas, Shawnees, Quapaws, Wichitas, and Wyandottes.  Note: Wichitas (comprised of Tonkawa, Wacos, Keechi, Caddos, others). All Indian Loyalists, repudiated the treaties made and concluded by Confederate factions of each Tribe with the “so-called Confederate States of America,” the terms of which required them to renounce their loyalty and allegiance to the government of the United States. The broken Treaties, coupled with the Union Victory made it necessary to effect new Treaties in 1866. Cessation of the Civil War and the desires of the Tribal Union Loyalists provided an excellent platform from which to execute new treaties tailor made to generously enfranchise the formerly enslaved ethnic Indian populace, now referred to by Whites, as “Freedmen“. So, we went from being Indian Negroes, Half-Breeds and Creoles, to simply, “Freedmen.” Adding to the confusion, were the Ethnic Colonies of Black Tribal People never having ever been Slaves, or whom had been freed from Indian  Slavery more than a hundred years before, where also called Freedmen. As you will soon see, even descendants of full Blood Black Aboriginals, were lumped into the catch-all group, called “Freedmen.” On a side note: Black Hawaiians, (black-birded to places such as Australia) were known as Kanaka’s. They were subsequently referred to also as “Free Men” when they were deported from Australia back to Hawaii.
Galveston Island
 
There are few sensible excuses given for the poor treatment and diminished importance of Galveston’s true history, by American Historians. It is particularly curious given that the island’s beginnings were Native, where  Caucasians profited handsomely from Slavery, Karankawa Trade (also known as the Cocos). The only plausible excuse to consider is that true history of Galveston reflects a strange consistency in the Ethnicity of original Native inhabitants, plunged into Slavery and removed, to became an obscure “Black” story suppressed and glossed over by European-American History.
 

 

The Descendants of Ethnic Tribal People Aim To Reclaim Our History
 
The goal is to tell our own story from our unique perspective: If your image of Galveston is that it was an antiseptic, lackluster place and perhaps the very last landmass imaginable from which the message of Freedom should ring, then you will be surprised to learn that Galveston was not just a random or haphazard place picked to announce the Emancipation of Slaves in Texas. The selected place was by divine design. Euro-History contends that Europeans founded the first settlement on Galveston in 1816.The truth translated: Indigenous Karankawa (bands of numerous Indian Nations sharing common goals) inhabited Galveston Island. Their domain was Opata territory. The area included Galveston Island, as well as the terrain of Northern Mexico’s border state of Sonora, which included New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma, all essential parts of New Spain.
 
In 1528 Spanish Explorer, Cabeza de Vaca and crew were shipwrecked on Galveston Island, calling it “Isla de Malhado” (“Isle of Doom” or “Isle of Misfortune”). During the charting of the Gulf Coast in 1785, Jose de Evia named the island, Galvez-town, after Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. (from July 23, 1746-November 30, 1786), a Spanish military leader and general of Spanish forces in New Spain who served as governor of Louisiana and Cuba, and as viceroy of New Spain. He succeeded his father Matias de Galvez y Gallardo (viceroy before him).
 
In 1816, Joa de la Porta and his brother Morin, established the first European settlement on Galveston by financing the Pirate Jean Lafitte. The Europeans, Jao and Morin were born in Portugal of Jewish parentage and later became Jewish Texas Traders.  In 1818, Jean Lafitte appointed Jao de la Porta as the supercargo for the Karankawa Indian Trade (meaning these Indians were sold into Slavery). Lafitte left Galveston Island in 1821, fleeing capture by the U.S. Navy. He fled with “his Mulatto Mistress and son.” The Jewish Slave Trader became a full-time operator. The Opatas; Karankawa were Coahuiltecans, Tonkawas, Wichita’s, Wacos and others, all were dark, sable and captives, conveniently converted to “African“ by paperwork of the Pirate Jean Lafitte and the Portuguese-Jewish Traders on Galveston.
 
Although Galveston was a natural Ethnic Aboriginal Domain, it (and Texas) has had six nations claim its sovereign territory and flown its flag over Texas;  (Flag #1). Spain (Flag #2). France (Flag #3). Mexico (Flag #4). Republic of Texas (where Galveston was pressed into service, as a provisional capital of the Republic of Texas, part of Washington on the Brazos in 1836). (Flag #5). United States of America (Flag #6). Confederate States of America (1861-1865).
Euro-history contends that the formal Texas Declaration of Independence, served as harbinger of the Texas Revolution, solidifying a desire to secede from Mexico.
 
The Texas Declaration of Independence was adopted during the Convention at Washington on the Brazos, March 2, 1836, resulting in establishment of the Republic of Texas.
 
More to the point, history demonstrates that Texas did not want to be in league with the Mexican Indian Negro State of Coahuila. You see, the Texas Revolution and the Texas Declaration of Independence, was all about the formal removal of Texas from Mexican rule for 2 reasons important to Black Indians; 1. because Mexico had abolished Slavery and 2. Mexico allowed the Black Indian State of Coahuila to remain an essential part of the Mexican Union. White Texas Settlers were outraged at their connection to a Mexican Black Indian State. In fact, listed as a reason in the Texas Declaration of Independence, was the statement that Mexico “was in Union with the State of Coahuila” (Coahuila y Tejas) with the distant capital of Saltillo” The capital was later changed to Monclova.
 
Slavery was outlawed in Mexico, and Texas being part of Mexico, meant that Texas Settlers were affected by the Mexican requirement that all persons moving into Texas, were to free all Slaves within six months of settling there (leading to a revolt among White Texans). The Governor of Coahuila y Tejas was induced into writing the President of Mexico to explain the importance of Slavery to Texas, and indeed received a temporary exemption from the rule.
 
However, in 1830, the state of Texas was ordered to comply in full with the Mexican emancipation law, but the ever-so-crafty Texas colonists then converted their slaves forcefully to indentured servants with a 99-year term. It was a malevolent and immoral practice which the state outlawed in 1832.
 
In 1834 the region was divided into three departments, Bexar, Brazos, and Nacogdoches. You are reminded that this was the hostile Republic the Black Oklahoma Seminoles later endured as they stealthily passed through in their bid to reach Mexico in 1849-1850 under John Horse, escorted and guarded by the Kickapoos. Texas Independence simply meant that Texans would continued to profit from Slavery as an attached territory to the United States until ordered to cease by General Granger in 1865. Note: You are also reminded that John Horse left 2 Bands of Black Seminoles behind in Oklahoma Indian Territory, with the full intention of returning to liberate them also.  They inhabited the most interior aspect of the tribal settlements and were left behind in order to ensure the secrecy of their flight. When John Horse returned, he found that the remaining Black Seminoles had been sequestered and quarantined by the Seminole Nation to prevent them from leaving of their own free will. John Horse’s Band of Seminoles were hotly pursued by a Creek Nation Posse, because he left with sister Juana, the mother of children that had been fathered by the Creek Chief.
 
Few modern people realize that Galveston Texas (Texas in general) began its rein as Indian Country, home to Karankawas, Coahuiltecans, Tonkawas, Wichitas, who are more recognizable as some of those affiliated Tribal Bands of Ethnic Aboriginal descendants participating in the Treaty at Ft. Smith. 
A great many of the Former Texas Indians called Galveston, Waco, Las Moras Creek, Del Rio, Nueces, Uvalde, Ft. Clark, Brackettville, Cow Bayou, Taylor, Whitewright, Grimes County, Wichita Falls, Paris and other Texas places, their ancestral home. Further, they were making Treaties that benefited and secured rights for Ethnic Natives, including the Southern Seminoles in Texas. Wichita Falls, Texas-the name is derived from the Choctaw Indians who were the original settlers of the area in the early 1700s. The name “wia chitoh,” meaning “big arbor,” was a description of the grass-thatched arbors in the Wichita’s village.” It lies 15 miles south of the border with Oklahoma and is officially part of the Red River Valley. These people were at Ft. Smith making certain war ended and that Ethnic Tribal People kin to them in Oklahoma and Texas, were free and included in prosperity plans for all Indians.
 
Ethnic (Black) Seminole Settlements founded (or inhabited) in the Texas Republic and along the U.S./Mexico Border by Chief John Horse’s Band of Seminole Negro Scouts: The Band stopped at Burnett, traveled on and founded settlements at Las Moras Creek, and Brackettville. They even settled the areas that would soon become Ft. Clark and Ft. Duncan. As for crossing over into Mexico, the Black Seminoles received/or settled; Hacienda El Nacimiento-(El Nacimiento de los Negroes)-On October 16, 1850; John Horse’s Band of the Seminoles received a land grant from the Central Mexican Government. Assigned area at the headwaters of the San Rodrigo and San Antonio Rivers in the Rio Grande District, State of Coahuila, thirty miles above Piedras Negras. The Mexican Government gave them “four sitios de Ganado mayor and other irrigatable property in the Hacienda El Nacimiento.” (a sitio is a unit of pasture land amounting to 1,711 hectares, one hectare being equivalent to 2.47 acres). Grant: In the Santa Rosa Mountains on the headwaters of the Sabinas river, twenty miles northwest of Santa Rosa, eighty-four miles southwest of Piedras Negras.     On July 26, 1852, they (Black Seminoles) were formally granted the promised sitios de Ganado mayor at Nacimiento, additionally, they were given four other plots in Durango, under the same conditions as the agreement of 16 October 1850.”      In 1936, A commission was established by the Departamento Agrario to study the matter. The officials reconfirmed the Ethnic Black Seminole Mascogos rights to their Nacimiento holdings and allotted them an additional 2,892 hectares of pasture land because some of their property had been taken away by adjacent haciendas.     On September 21, 1938, President Lazaro Cardenas signed a decree that was published in the Diario Oficial of November 30, 1938 ratifying both the original grant and the extra hectares. The Black Seminole Mascogos firmly possessed their Nacimiento property. They do so to this day. Monclova Viejo-Established March 3, 1851. (Now Cuidad Acuna) Located across from Del Rio and close to Guerrero below Piedras Negras. (Guerrero, “Warrior”). Black Seminoles were also at Cozoyoapan and Laguna de Parra. El Moral (north of Piedras Negras)–(Established 1850). Following their forced emigration to Mexico in 1850, the immigrants stayed at El Moral, just north of Piedras Negros (across from Eagle Pass), while Wild Cat’s band of Seminoles stayed in San Fernando de Rosas. The Black Seminoles were also settled at Durango; Morelos; y Buena Vista-a few miles downriver from Nacimiento; La Navaja; Rancho del Rincon;
 
Laguna de Parra-(Located in Southwestern Coahuila); Hacienda de los Hornos-(Located in the district of Viesca); Hacienda de San Marcos; Hacienda El Burro; and Matamoros-(Across the border from Brownsville, Texas).
 

 

Juneteenth
Juneteenth is of immense importance to our combined collective peoples. It serves as Commemoration of a Texas Event that demonstrated that the man-made borders could no longer be imposed to separate the free from the enslaved. It’s concept weighed on the conscience of our Indian ancestors who dared to then say, set them free, so that we may all be free! May The Genius of Universal Emancipation and Enfranchisement be the hallmark of the future of America. On that day fateful day, June 19, 1865 Union Major General Gordon Granger read General Order #3 to the people of Galveston, Texas. General Order #3 stated; “The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a  proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages.”
 
But thankfully, the freed people rejected the advice to remain quietly where they had been forced to work and labor for free. They were free and freedom meant free to walk away, to never look back and be exceeding joyful upon the occasion. This is precisely what they did. It was a crucial moment in this nation’s history and our people praised God, packed their bags and moved on to beseech the Indian Nations, “to let my people go.”
 
1865 Treaty at Fort Smith: Chickasaw and Choctaw Treaty, Article 3: “the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations respectively shall have made such laws, rules and regulations as may be necessary to give all persons of African descent, resident in the said nation at the date of the Treaty of Fort Smith, and their descendants, heretofore held in slavery among said nations, all the rights, privileges, and immunities, including the right of suffrage of citizens of said nations…” Perhaps there is ample space and time during Juneteenth commemorations to mourn all those that lost the battle to achieve Freedom during their lifetime, but we must always hold on to the Freedom we have. Sovereign  Freedom (particularly for Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminoles, and Moors) we must continuously build and strengthen our Nations. We don’t belong to other men. We have every right that all honest and upright men and women have to enjoy freedom by breathing new life into the historic past occupation, lives and stories of our ancestral people and converting it into inspiration.
 
We have a right to turn the salty water of tears shed here at the end of the Trail of Tears, into joyful life-affirming bread of heaven in Oklahoma, Tatil Coya, for the North American Kings of the Sun, the children of the Great Sun.
Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, invite you to come visit the inspired exhibits and collections related to Ethnic Indians of the Americas, showcased by the Leona Mitchell Southern Heights Heritage Center and Museum at 616 Leona Mitchell Blvd in Enid, Oklahoma 73701, to get the rest of the story.
 
Hikia Tuscaloosa! Stand Up Black Warriors!
 
Support Ethnic Indian Sovereignty and the campaign to Nationalize Our Juneteenth Holiday!
 
Yakoke! Thank You! Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman

         

Commemoration of Confederate History-A Black Indian Perspective

August 21st, 2011

 

Breaking The Power of the Confederacy In Historical Arkansas Territory
(Oklahoma Indian Territory)
 
Free Black Tribal Citizens, Ethnic Black Indians, Black Mixed Bloods 
and Their Full Blood Kin United As Union Loyalists 
To Tilt The Balance of Power Toppling The Confederacy Within Indian Country in 1865
Paving The Way For The 1866 Treaties with the Five Civilized Tribes
 
In Advance of the Commemoration of the 144th Anniversary of the Treaty between the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations with the United States Government on April 28th, 1866, We, the Lineal Descendants of the Ethnic Black Choctaw and Chickasaw Citizens arise to grant historical perspective on the conditions making it necessary to effect new Treaties in that year.
 
Let me state first that due to the complete absence of an Ethnic Native American Tribal historical perspective, along with the resultant Suppression of the Black Indian Story in Oklahoma, many persons do not know that the 1866 Treaties were written specifically to benefit Ethnic Black Indians (Loyal Refugee Indians and newly “Freed” Citizens, “Freedmen“) of the 5 Civilized Tribes, as allies of the U.S. Federal Government. 
This Class of Indian Citizen rejected alliances (to great personal peril) with certain factions of the 5 Civilized Tribes loyal to the Confederacy.
 
Following the Civil War: In anger fueled by the jealous contention that the collective Black Indians had been “the favorites of the Full Bloods and the U.S. Government“, the growing Euro-Educated Class of Mixed Blood White Indians eventually took over the Nations, and attempted to repeal the En Masse Adoption of the Black Indians. They also instituted harsh Segregationist, Anti-miscegenation laws, Black Codes, Jim Crow and exiled Black Indians. The Ethnic Black Indians have been denied Heirship and Beneficiary Rights, stripped of their Citizenship and Nationality. Eventually they found themselves devastated by absentee Federal Stewards and Guardians hiding behind a feigned position of powerlessness, quiet disregard and mismanagement to aid the cruelly cheated Black Indians and Freedmen of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations.
 
What’s Happening Now: In an ultimate act of treachery, Agents of the U.S. Government and the Euro-Educated Class of Mixed Blood White Indian (descendants of disloyal Confederate Indians) colluded to quietly deny Ethnic Black Indians and Freedmen Access and Benefit of their Treaty Mandated Rights by stripping them of their Citizenship Eligibility in revised Tribal Constitutions, thereby denying Black Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creek Nationality, including Southern Creeks and Seminoles known as Seminole Negro Scouts (with recent attempts by the Seminole and Cherokee Nation to accomplish the same with attached Bands of Freedmen), as the Tribes exchanged the Natural Sovereignty of the parent Tribes for a Federally issued Charter of Recognition dispensed by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, under the tenets of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare and Indian Reorganization Acts. 
These days, the descendants of Confederate Indians of the 5 Civilized Tribes have positioned themselves to be viewed as solely eligible to receive Federal Benefits and Access to Programs put on by the U.S. Government For Indians, by shielding themselves with the contrived revisionist story that their “Sovereignty” allows them to choose their members, to the total exclusion of persons descended from “Freedmen.”

 

However, Ethnic Black Indians and Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes have filed suit in the U.S. Federal Court of Claims to sue to the U.S. Federal Government because they have been denied access to their historically designated Trust Lands and Trust Funds mandated by each of the 1866 Treaties and to protect their rights as Claimants, Lineal Descendants, Heirs, Beneficiaries, An Ethnic Protectorate, Partite Interests and Successors In Interest to the Ethnic Predecessor Sovereigns of the Historic Five Civilized Tribes, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations.
To date their Court of Claims case was dismissed without review (although the Judge attempted to render a discrediting Summary Judgment without so much as discovery).
The case went to Appeals and is now awaiting review by the U.S. Supreme Court.
 
Ethnic Black Indians and Freedmen are well aware (as Sovereigns) that all U.S. Courts are inferior to their Sovereign Nation Status. However in order to satisfy protocol to attempt to resolve the matter at every possible level (local, State and Federal) before approaching an International Venue for relief, it is a channel that we must test. It is also an avenue that must be trod in the absence of a strong Congress interested in correcting Historical wrongs committed against Ethnic Black Indians and Freedmen.
 
Historical Background (Condensed Overview)

 


Arkansas (including Arkansas Territory and Oklahoma) were included in the highly illegal and controversial “Louisiana Purchase” from France in 1803, which has been touted as a “sale” (essentially a taking of the lands) by two foreign European Nations, which completely failed to include, compensate or notify the Aboriginal “owners” of an attempt to sell, buy, purchase or seize. At any rate, the area was selected as a settlement for various Tribes of Indians following their removal in 1830, by the U.S. Government.
 
Choctaw Country (As noted by the Treaty at Dancing Rabbit Creek):
The 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (15 September, 1830; ratified by the Senate of the United States, 24 February, 1831) by the Commissioners on the part of the United States, boundaries were set conveying to the Choctaw Nation “a tract of country west of the Mississippi River, in fee simple, to them and their descendants, to inure to them while they shall exist as a nation, and live on it liable to no transfer of alienation, except to the United States, or with their consent.”
 
“By act of Congress it was set apart for the perpetual home of the Indian races in 1834”
Tribal Nations on Indian Lands at the end of the Trail of Tears, even as late as 1865, were described as living in “the Choctaw Nation West of the State of Arkansas”, rendering the area essentially, Arkansas Territory, a crucial part of the sprawling and vast domain owned, inhabited and under the true legal jurisdiction and geographical sphere of influence of various original Tribal Nations removed from their historic ancestral homes under America‘s 1830 Indian Removal policies, from places such as Alabama and Mississippi. The persons removed by U.S. Policy, included the descendants of the first aboriginal Alabamians and Mississipians inhabiting the area as Paleo-Indians 14,000 years before contact with Whites. 
The first Europeans to traverse the Interior of this Aboriginal Country had come in the 1500s. In particular was the 1540 De Soto Expedition, which ended in a great battle with Chief Tuscaloosa (the Black Warrior) and the Tuscaloosa’s Choctaws (Black Warriors). The Major Interior Tribes in the overall region from Florida to Arkansas Territory were the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee and Seminole Nations. De Soto would lose his life after an incursion with the Tuscaloosa Choctaw who vowed to disallow him to leave with their ancestral lands with the treasures of the ancient ones. 
Chief Tuscaloosa (Black Warrior) told De Soto, “we always lived free here.”
 
Description of Chief Tuscaloosa From a De Soto Narrative, 1540:
“On Sunday, the tenth of October, the Governor entered in the town of Tascalusa, which was called Athahachi, a new town; and the cacique was on a balcony that was made on a mound to one side of the plaza, about his head a certain headdress like an almaizar, worn like a Moor, which gave him an appearance of authority, and a pelote or blanket of feathers down to his feet, very authoritative, seated upon some high cushions, and many principals of his Indians with him.” 

 

Note: Almaizar (a Moorish Turban or Headwrap)
 
It is important that one understands that these Indian Lands were not U.S. States and particularly, Oklahoma Indian Territory (historic Arkansas Territory), which would not become a U.S. State for 77 after removals. In fact, Oklahoma would not become a State until 1907 (42 years after the close of the Civil War). As such, the area was unaffected by U.S. Laws, like Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The area was excepted by Lincoln (because it was Arkansas Territory) or Indian Country.
 
A later (1881) description of Indian Territory in the Chronicles of Oklahoma noted; “That portion of the vast territory of the United States which, by treaty with a large number of Indian tribes, has been set apart and reserved as a perpetual home for the remnants of the aboriginal races, by a solemn and irrevocable act of Congress”. “It is officially known as the Indian Country, and without civil organization. It contains as area of 68,991 square miles”.
 
The June 30, 1834 Indian Intercourse Act
“This Act is best described as the “intercourse act” since it regulated the relations which were thenceforward, with occasional amendment, to subsist between the legal residents of the Indian country and the surrounding states and territories.” But among other provisions, the act directed “that all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas…be taken and deemed to be the Indian  country.”
 
Careful review shows that the domain set aside contained an area much greater than the later known geographies as “Indian Territory.”
 
The Civil War In Indian Territory
(Slavery As A Concept Was Not The Cause of the Civil War)
The Civil War of the United States affected the foundation and social organization of the people of the Five Civilized Tribes. A large number of mixed blood (White) Indians owned Slaves. By the same token there were also thousands of Indians with Families, children and allies of African Ancestry (Ethnic Black Indians). These classes of Indians were consistently plagued by those desiring to profit off the capture and sale of Black Indians, regardless of their blood ties to other Tribal Members. Rewards, Bounties and Enticements were offered for turning in so-called “Slaves.”
 
The main cause for discord in Indian Country was the much debated question (by the Democrat and Republican Parties) was of the extension of Slavery to the Territories being settled by emigrants from the States. At the time (1860s) the Republicans declared their opposition to the extension of Slavery into the Territories, “but did not propose to interfere with it where it existed.”
 
The Democrats declared that Slave owners had the right to move their Slave property into the Territories and have it protected there, the same as other property.
In other words, neither of two Political Parties were opposed to Slavery, but primarily where it existed and whether or not Slave owners had the right to expect that their Slave property ownership rights would be respected and protected.
 
Among Indian Country however, since thousands of Indians were also of African Ancestry (both Free and/or Enslaved Citizens) tied intrinsically to non-African Ancestored Indians, was the additional problem of the existence of Slavery altogether in their Territory as a Philosophy. It deprived families of the right to claim kinship and required them to obtain ownership papers on their Black Indian kin in order to thwart efforts to abduct them for money and other selfish purposes. The documents also aided the Family Members (as owners) to the return of their rightful property.
 
Even the Creek Chief found himself launching a legendary Posse in 1850 to reclaim Chief John Horse’s sister Juana, with whom the Creek Chief had children. She left with the contingent of Seminoles fleeing Slavery in Oklahoma during the middle of night in the dead of winter. Juana had lived free in Florida, but due to her Black Color, had been one of the Seminole Indians that the U.S. and the Creek Nation sought to remand to a condition of Slavery in the Arkansas Territory. Although she was pursued by the Creek Posse, Juana crossed the border into Mexico with the Black Seminoles under John Horse to live out her days as a self-emancipated free person among the Southern Seminoles and Southern Creeks.
 
Facing Down The Confederacy

“Mr. Lincoln had been nominated as a candidate for President by the Republicans. Following that the gauntlet had been thrown down in a full-fledged threat by the Democrats who declared that should he be elected President, “the Southern States would certainly secede or withdraw from the Union” and as we all know, Lincoln’s election was announced and one State after another called Conventions and passed ordinances of secession in the Southern Slave States. Of course the States bordering on the Indian Territory, Arkansas and Texas were early in the field and sent Confederate emissaries to the leaders and councils of the Five Civilized Tribes, wherein the Confederate factions of the Tribes denounced their treaty relations with the United States and declared their adhesion to the South” creating instant turmoil among the Union Loyalists in the Tribes.
Most Tribes ended up with Two Principal Chiefs and as many councils during this period, with one representing Union Loyalists and the other representing the Confederacy.
 
Because the Indian Nations had such divided loyalties, it also divided their views of slavery and secession. It was not easy for the Confederate emissaries from Arkansas and Texas to convince the councils and leaders of the Indian Tribes, particularly the Cherokees and Creeks, that it would be in their interest to take any active part in the impending conflict in the States. It was however, pointed out by the Confederacy that the position of the Indian Territory, with Arkansas directly on the east and Texas on the south, made them natural allies of the South. Kansas had not yet been admitted as a State in the Union, so there was no solace to be found among Confederates with Kansas or with the North. However, Union Loyalists would take advantage of the undecided position of Kansas, to provide somewhat of a protected holding area for Union Loyalist Factions of Tribes, if they could manage to pass through the virulent line of Confederate Indian Units blocking their passage.
 
Excerpts From The Battle Front

 


“In the meantime Southern military organizations from Texas and Arkansas seized the United States Forts in the Indian Territory, along with supplies of arms and equipment.
Although each of the 5 Civilized Tribes had Confederate Factions in their midst, there remained opposition forces Loyal to the U.S. Government, including Refugee Indians and Freedmen escaping Indian Territory into Southwest Kansas, below Hudson’s Crossing at Neosho and Missouri. The Loyal Indians were greatly decimated by Colonel Stand Watie’s band of Cherokees. They suffered from sickness and disease.”
 
“General Schofield resumed command and retired twenty-five miles north to Elm Springs, where new dispositions were made, and where the Indian Brigade was organized and became a separate command under Colonel W. A. Phillips, with instructions to take up a position near Maysville on the Arkansas and Territory line to safeguard the interests of the loyal Indians in the Territory, and to be of assistance to Colonel M. La Rue Harrison at Fayetteville in organizing several regiments from the Unionists of western Arkansas.”
 
“After the battle of Prairie Grove, arrangements were made for removing the large number of Indian refugees, exiles, old men, women and children from their camp at Baxter Springs to Neosho, Missouri, about twenty-five miles southeast, where it was believed better housing and sanitary conditions could be provided for them. There were four or five springs of pure water within the limits of the town; there was an abundance of hardwood timber for fuel, easily accessible; many of the Southern and Union families had moved, leaving their houses empty, the Southern families going South, and the Union families to Kansas and Springfield. There were probably a dozen or more churches in town that would afford hospital facilities for the sick and feeble, and there were quite a few doctors who could be useful in attending the sick and afflicted. 
The cold blasts of winter were beginning to be keenly felt and the military authorities put forth commendable efforts to make the nation of exiles as comfortable as possible under the circumstances. Major John A. Foreman was detached with a battalion of the Third Indian regiment, Cherokees, and ordered to occupy Neosho for the protection of these refugees or exiles against the raids of guerilla bands in that section. “
 
“At Pineville the command turned south to Bentonville, Arkansas, and was there two or three weeks. Here the smallpox broke out among the Indian soldiers, and a smallpox camp established and the patients isolated and sent there. And  the Indian families at Neosho were beginning to get restless and longing for the day when they would start back to their long abandoned homes. They, too, had suffered from a plague of measles, which with its sequelae, had brought death and sorrow to many families.
 
To thwart these raids by the Southern Indians as much as possible and permit the Cherokees who were attached to the Union to live in their homes undisturbed, Colonel Phillips determined to seize and occupy Fort Gibson, which would enable him to hold the Indian country north of the Arkansas River, and protect the Union Indian families.
 
The spring was now sufficiently advanced to allow the Indian families to plant such crops of corn and garden stuff as they usually raised, and he sent an order to Major Foreman at Neosho, to prepare an adequate train to bring down all the Indian families at that place and their effects and join him at Park Hill, which they did on the 9th of April, 1863, being enroute about ten days. When information was received that the train of exiles was approaching near at hand, a battalion of Cherokees was drawn up in line and awaited them, There were many demonstrations of joy between the Indian soldiers and their families, having seen little of each other the last year. 
The train bearing the exiles was more than a mile long, made up of every conceivable kind of vehicle, but the restoring to their homes the families of the exiles of a nation was almost as keen a satisfaction to the white soldiers as to the Indians. Nearly all the Cherokee families dispersed to their homes, many having left the train at Maysville who lived in the northern part of the nation, but the Creek and
 
Seminole families followed the troops to Fort Gibson, and nearly all remained there that spring, as their country was south of the Arkansas River and still held by the Confederate forces. After the defeat of the Confederate forces under General Cooper, twenty-five miles south of Fort Gibson, in July, 1863, at Elk Creek, they were pushed back south of the Creek country and the Creek families returned to their homes, but with less safety than the Cherokees whose country was firmly held by the Federal forces. 
The Arkansas River was a good line of defense for the Cherokee country, particularly when western Arkansas was held by the Union forces. 
After Colonel Phillips captured, occupied and fortified Fort Gibson and was able to control the Arkansas River through the Indian country, the Southern Cherokee families who belonged to the Waitie faction, gradually drifted south with colonies settled along Red River, having lost practically everything by the fortunes of war. The Confederate authorities were not prepared to take as good care of these Southern Indian families as the Federal Government had taken of the loyal Cherokees and Creeks. They too were exiles and in a pitiable condition the last year of the war.”

The Making of the Treaties
 
Who brought the U.S. Government to Indian Territory during the Civil War?
Why do the 1866 Treaties Exist?
 
    The Tribal People that the U.S. Government sat down and hammered out the treaties with were those that had not been in rebellion against the U.S. Government and had in fact been upset that the Confederate Factions within their Nations had been the ones to involve the Tribes in the U.S. Civil War. The unhappy result for these Union Loyalists is that the actions of the Confederate Indians (Confederation Factions of the 5 Civilized Tribes) had broken the pre-existing treaties made between the Tribal Governments and the United States. New Treaties with the U.S. Government had become an unavoidable necessity.
 
Who called for Treaties and/or Congressional Legislation
to Benefit Indian Freedmen in 1866?
 
    On January 5, 1866 Brevet Major General John B. Sanborn, Commissioner to the Honorable James Harlan, U.S. Secretary of the Interior wrote a letter outlining the desperate condition of the Indian Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes. The letter was dispatched from the Arkansas Headquarters of the Commission regulating relations between Freedmen in the Indian Territory and their Former Masters, the 5 Civilized Tribes. The subjects of Brevet Major General John B. Sanborn’s communications were, “the following tribes of Indians in the Indian Territory which formerly held slaves, viz: Seminoles, Creeks, Cherokees and the loyal portion of the Chickasaws under Lewis Johnson.” Sanborn admitted that the rapidly deteriorating condition of the Freedmen rendered his letter crucial, imperative and essential with an urgency that needed no delay. So his letter was written even, “before visiting the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations for the reason that, as the condition of the Freedmen in those nations requires the immediate action of the Government, there should be no delay on account of any failure of mine to make an early report”.
 
    Sanborn also wrote that, “the Freedmen are the most industrious, economical, and in many respects the more intelligent portion of the population of the Indian Territory” and “they all desire to remain in the territory on lands set apart for their own exclusive use. The Indians who are willing that the Freedmen should remain in the territory at all, also prefer that they should be located upon a tract of country by themselves. This question was canvassed much by the Freedmen and the Indians.”
 
    He went on to state that, “the Creek Nation look upon the Freedmen as their equals in rights and have or are in favor of incorporating them into their tribe with all the rights and privileges of native Indians.”
 
“The Seminole entertain the same or nearly the same sentiments and feelings as the Creeks.”
 
    “The Cherokee are divided in sentiment; a portion and not a very small portion, think the Govt. Should move the negroes from this country, as it has freed them; while a portion, including the principal Chief, Downing, are in favor of having them retained in the Nation, and located upon some tract of land set apart for their exclusive use, and Col. Downing says, that this policy will obtain in the nation; and that civil rights will be accorded to the Freedmen before a great while.”
 
    “The Choctaw Nation is divided in sentiment but the preponderance of sentiment is strongly against the Freedmen, and a violent prejudice exists against them in that nation which time alone will overcome. The public men and council acknowledge a change in the relation of the former masters and slaves, while a large portion of the people do not admit any change in these relations, and their action and treatment toward them is much the same as formerly except in instances where the Freedmen are driven away from their former homes by their masters.”
 
Slaves In U.S. States Were Free: 
Slaves Under the Jurisdiction of Tribes Were Still Held In Indian Territory
 
    Brevet Major General Sanborn also recounted incidents of murder, violence and other crimes committed against Freedmen in Indian Territory. He also noted that at the time of his writing (January 1866) that “the Chickasaw Nation is still holding most of their negroes in slavery and entertain a bitter prejudice against them all. They have provided by law for the gradual emancipation of their slaves and exclude all from the nation who left it during the war.” In other words, all negroes who left the country and joined the Federal Army are prohibited from returning.” It was also true in the Choctaw Nation.”
 
    “So bitter is the feeling against the return of the negroes that have been in the Federal Army, that Maj. Coleman and myself have concluded that it is not safe or advisable for Lewis Johnson and party to return until troops are stationed at Arbuckle.”
 
    Sanborn mentioned enclosing a paper marked “Exhibit C: showing what terms the loyal Indians demand of the disloyal before living with them again.”
He also wrote, “The first step towards the accomplishment of anything for the Freedmen of those nations, or even enabling the loyal Indians to return with the Freedmen associated with them, is the garrisoning of the military posts.”

Indian Freedmen and Indian Nations Agree on Separate Tracts of Country 
Within the Jurisdiction of the Tribes
 
    Finally, Sanborn wrote, “The condition of public sentiment in the two nations is no cause for delay on the part of the Government to make provision at once for the Freedmen of all the tribes to go upon tracts of country set apart for their own exclusive use, which is so much desired by the Freedmen and all loyal Indians. There are two practical methods of doing this: the first and most desirable is by treaty stipulations with the respective nations in the treaties about to be concluded at Washington. The second is by Congressional enactment carried into effect as Congress shall provide.”
 
Brevet Major General Sanborn and the Loyal Factions of the Tribes are credited with coming up with the following terms, which thereby established the basis and foundation of all the 1866 Treaties, the first of which was written a mere 2 months after these offered in January 1866;
 
    “There should be set apart a tract large enough to give a square mile to every four persons as there is much waste land in the nation. The tract or tracts should be the most fertile in the territory as the Freedmen are the principal producers, and should in all cases touch either the Arkansas or Red River, so that the crops could be run out on flat boats. Reference should be made to timber and prairies, as well as bottom and upland. Persons not Freedmen living now upon lands so set apart should be allowed the option of remaining, or having the improvements appraised by three disinterested parties, and receive the appraised value of the same from the Govt. Sixty days from the passage of the act, or approval of the Treaty, should be allowed such party to signify his choice to the proper officer.”
 
    “Provision should be made for the survey of such tracts at the earliest time practicable into sections and the Freedmen over 18 years of age allowed to enter 320 acres of the same under the Homestead Law or by script provided for the purpose without power of alienation during the life of the party entering the same or for a definite term of years.
When the tribes know that this policy and course is determined upon by the Govt. they will in my judgment submit to it without any open resistance, perhaps without a murmur, and the Freedmen will rejoice that at last they have a prospect of a permanent home for themselves and their children.”
 
    “The Freedmen of the Seminole and Creek tribes believe that the National laws and customs of their tribes are sufficient for their protection, while the Freedmen of the other tribes all feel and say that they know that there is no security or protection for them either in person or property without some power or government superior and above that of the Indian Nations to which they belong. These views of the Freedmen are in my judgment correct, and the Territory should either be organized into a Military District with martial law in full-force and fully enforced, with a good executive commander who would supervise everything, or a Territorial Government should be organized to execute the laws. All the Indian tribes are unanimously opposed to a Territorial Government but such a Govt. or a Military Govt. is imperatively required by the situation. It cannot be expected that any Govt. would leave ten or twelve thousand of its citizens as the Freedmen of the Indian Territory now are, while within its own borders without any Govt., or without the full protection and benefits of its own laws and institutions. To hand them over to the laws and customs of the Indian tribes would be extraordinary and anomalous.
All lands set apart for the Freedmen should whenever practicable be located east of the 97th degree of longitude as the drought is usually so severe west of that as to render the maturity of the crops very uncertain.”
    “With lands set apart for the Freedmen of the Indian Nations, and the Freedmen located upon them, and a Govt., Military or Civil organized and executed for their protection, they will beyond doubt soon become an industrious, intelligent and happy population.”
 
Congressional amelioration of the Freedmen Condition made it necessary to enact Legislation authorizing the Dawes Commission and the subsequent U.S. Government’s implementation of the Dawes Acts (of 1887 and 1893) or General  Allotment Act. Essentially, no other Indian Nations would have gained the right to Individual Allotments, or individual Indian Money Accounts had not a commission been established to count and consider the Freedmen covered by the 1866 Treaties in the first place. Freedmen were guaranteed millions of acres of Tribal Lands by the 1866 Treaties, which were subsequently divided in severalty (even though they had only been divided with receipt of original patents between 1906 and 1908). 25 year protections upon Freedmen Lands gained by that Act were eradicated by Congress in 1910. 2 to 4 years of patented ownership in the worst & best cases.
    As you can see, Brevet Major General Sanborn’s words were eerily prophetic and cautionary. It is evident that he took his job seriously and endeavored valiantly to help Indian Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes to attain the most positive existence possible.
    The 1866 Treaties were written with the aforementioned ideas in mind. Included were many references of Freedmen loyalty to the Union and specifically how it made them a target for the opposition. What thrills the soul is that Brevet Major Sanborn envisioned an impartial 3 Man Commission to aid the Freedmen, which ultimately became the Federally Authorized Dawes Commission, plus the founding of a Census to count all Loyal Refugees and Freedmen joining the Federal Army or those remaining loyal to the U.S. Government, for the purposes of Identifying and compensating them for their loyalty. The foundation of this claim is found in each of the 1866 Treaties.
 
    Yet no one could have predicted how the Census compiled by the Dawes Commission would later receive revisionist re-interpretation as an Indian Census with a Separate non-Indian Former Slave List (Freedmen). Further, the finding of the Union Loyalist “Freedmen” on a separate category was cruelly determined to be a list of people without Indian Blood. In reality, the entirety of the Dawes Final Rolls were intended (via the language of the treaties) to contain and benefit only those Indians, Freedmen (and their descendants) that remained Loyal the U.S. Government during the Civil War in Indian Territory. There was never any intention at all to benefit the descendants of Confederate Indians. These days no Freedmen are benefiting from the Treaties penned for their benefit and the Confederate Indians have gentrified the claims of Union Loyalists and Freedmen.
 

    Confederate descendants of Indians are fond of saying that the Tribes were “forced” to agree and abide by the 1866 Treaties. They would like to forget that they exist. Doesn’t that sound like the sour-grapes prattle of the losers of the Civil War in Indian Territory?
Union Loyalists on the other hand were extremely pleased with the outcome of the Treaties they hammered out with the aid of the U.S. Government, the winners of the Civil War. All of the Loyal Citizens of Indian Territory were to be enfranchised by the 1866 Treaties. The growing White/Indian Class has been quite successful in ousting all Freedmen and have managed to make today’s Indian Reservations the only Federally Sanctioned Black Free Zones in the Country. All it took was criminal collusion, mishandling of ethnic Indian Wards, disenfranchisement of Black Indians, ethnic exclusion, racism, adherence
to an outlawed Jim Crow one-drop rule, implementation of discriminatory Federal Rules
of Access to the Indian Reorganization Act Provisions and Denial of Federal Recognition.
 
A Final Census of the Loyal Refugees and Freedmen would become part of the language of the 1866 Treaties;
March 21, 1866 Treaty with the Seminole Nation, Article 4.
April 28, 1866 Treaty with the Chickasaws and Choctaws, Article(s) 8.1 and 49.
June 14, 1866 Treaty with the Creek Nation, Article 4.
July 19, 1866 Treaty with the Cherokee, Article 12. First
 
A Three man Commission conducting a Census(requested by Sanborn at the outset) was officially authorized in 1892 and implemented by Congress in 1896, it was known as the “Dawes Commission” (implemented 30 years after the 1866 Treaties). It was a special tribunal enacted to conduct a final accounting of the Loyal Indians and Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes. They began interviews in 1898 and the Commission consisted of Massachusetts Senator Henry Lauren Dawes, Archibald S. McKennon of Arkansas and Meredith Kidd of Indiana. Their instructions were to make the rolls “descriptive.”
 

Sadly, the Freedmen would not be endowed with 320 Acres of Tribal Lands as envisioned by Sanborn. The surplus acreage was denied Freedmen and given over, instead, as excess lands taken by Whites whom had flooded into Indian Territory.
 
Treaty Mandated stipulations were intended to endow only Loyal Refugee Indians and Freedmen with re-compensation, benefits and privileges. However, Freedmen (the ultimate Loyal Citizens during the Civil War are wholly disenfranchised and the descendants of Confederate Indians (mixed Blood/White Indians) whose ancestors rebelled against the U.S. Government are now solely rewarded as a matter of U.S. Federal Government Policy, exclusive of Freedmen, which violates the 1866 Treaties entirely.
[See Seminole Treaty, 1866].
Commemoration of Confederate History Should Include a Black Indian Perspective of Confederate History As Well. This Is My Contribution 4/22/2010
Sincerely,
Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo)Black Warrior
 

 

 

 

 

 

Colonial White Surnames: Part 2

August 20th, 2011

 

White Colonial Surnames Part 2
Hollywood Masks Jewish Ethnicity: Promotes Caucasoid Names and Perfection

For as long as I can remember, I’ve heard aspersions cast that Jews dominated the Media and I have often wondered about the origin of that claim. It seems that enigmatic terminology for “The Media” originally referred to communication, information and entertainment disseminating venues that initially began in this country with communications in all its various forms. America started really with Gramophones, Phonographs, Victor Talking Machines (Gramophones, Victrolas)-founded by Eldridge R. Johnson and Emile Berliner (German surname), Telegraph, Cables and Newspapers. As for reaching the huddled masses far and wide, the country ventured first to radio, then movies.

There were silent movies, then “talkies.” Talking Movies were often lavish productions produced by only a few Movie Studios. These studios made stars by selecting and grooming talent, creating an image for its “star” and cranking out products that would make everyone involved incredibly wealthy. During wartime, Movies shown at home and abroad featured the forerunner of commercials. Remember it was Movies, before Television. The movies often had news shows built into them (especially those prepared for military troops during the war). 
So the natural question to ask was who dominated this venue of the Media Industry? Naturally in researching this question we found the answer regarding the originating point of the initial claim in the name changes of Movie industry personnel, as well as changes to the names of persons in inter-related industries, enough to substantiate that “Jewish persons dominated a more than significant percentage of the Media, including ancillary and incidental industries related to Media. 
Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1891-1968) was the publisher of the New York Times from 1935 to 1961 (the son of Cyrus L. Sulzberger and Rachel Peixotto Hays, descendant of old and noteworthy Sephardic families. His great-grandfather, Benjamin Seixas brother of the famous rabbit and American revolutionary Gershom Mendes Seixas of Congregation Shearith Israel, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange).

Sulzberger married Iphigene Bertha Ochs in 1917. In 1918 he began working at the Times, and became publisher when his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, the previous Times publisher, died in 1935. In 1929, he founded Columbia’s original Jewish Advisory Board and served on the board of what became Columbia-Barnard Hillel for many years. He also served as a Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1939 to 1957.
The important thing here is that his modern descendant serves as Chairman of the Times.
Sulzberger built the Times Radio Station, WQXR into a leading vehicle for news and music. Under Sulzberger the Times began to publish editions in Paris, and Los Angeles.

From ownership of the studios, to controlling who got hired, who didn’t, musicians, camera operators, ancillary services, ownership of Movie Houses andTheaters, Jews figured prominently in controlling the depiction of certain races integral to plot development in their productions. It seems Americans have grown up not realizing that their view of life (depicted in the Media) was through a lens of deception and oppresion based upon images that were not quite comprised of the whole truth. But how does this tie into name changes? 
Early Hollywood Movie Moguls established the pattern and set the standard for mainstreaming name changes.
Shmuel Gelbfisz became Samuel Goldwyn (the G in MGM) and, 
Wilhelm Fried (German) became William Fox of what would later became 20th Century Fox. Actors and Actresses simply followed suit. Many of them did so to hide ethnicity, out of fear of discrimination and also a desire to fashion an acceptable European name for the marquee. [MGM: Metro, Goldwyn, Mayer founded April 16, 1924 in Century City, Los Angeles, California when Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures Corp and Louis B. Mayer Pictures]. Hollywood Movie-making, a wholly Jewish enterprise, set the standard for perception of European beauty, popularity and created an entire industry based upon deception of the masses through movie magic, control of their image and information systems. 
*Adolph Cukor, became Adolph Zukor (founder of Paramount Pictures) and partner to Marcus Loew of MGM. (born in Ricse, Hungary to a Jewish Family). Zukor was a furrier at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago World’s Fair). Held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival and the discovery of the New World by Europeans.

The Chicago Columbian Exposition was designed by Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmstead. Many prominent civic, professional and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing, coordination and management of the Fair, including Chicago Shoe Tycoon, Charles Schwab. 
46 Nations participated. Haiti selected Frederick Douglass to be their delegate.

Jewish entertainers recorded name changes in Europe and the Americas as early as the 1860s and 1870s, beginning with;
*Sara Marie Henriette Rosine Bernardt, became Sarah Bernhardt. (10/22/1844-3/26/1923). 
Note 1: Documented as “French”, Bernhardt was challenged due to “much of the uncertainty about Bernhardt’s life arises because of her tendency to exaggerate and distort. Alexandre Dumas, fils (the son) described her as a notorious liar.“ 
Note 2: Dumas’ paternal great-grandparents were a French nobleman and a Haitian woman. Alexandre Dumas, pere (the father) acknowledged his son and assured him the finest education.
Note 3.: Actress Sarah Bernhardt was the daughter of Julie Bernardt. Julie was one of six children born to Jewish spectacle merchant and petty criminal Moritz Baruch Barnardt and Sara Hirsch-who later was known as Janetta Hartog).

By The Magic of Hollywood:
*Leonard Marx, became Chico Marx (Austrian, German)
*Julius Marx, became Groucho Marx
*Milton Marx, became Gummo Marx
*Adolph Marx, became Harpo Marx
*Herbert Marx, became Zeppo Marx
*Nathan Birnbaum, became George Burns
*Frederick Austerlitz, became Fred Astaire
*David Kaminsky, became became Danny Kaye
*Melvin Kaminsky, became Mel Brooks
*Benjamin Kubelsky, became Jack Benny (Jewish, Poland)
*Milton Berlinger, became Milton Berle
*Betty Joan Perske, became Lauren Bacall (Romanian)
*Israel Baline, became Irving Berlin
*Charles Buchinski, became Charles Bronson
*Yul Brynner, became Taidje Kahn, Jr.
*Bela Ferenc Blasko, became Bela Lugosi
*Walter Matuschanskayasky, became Walter Matthau (Slavic)
*Asa Yoelson, became Al Jolson (Hebrew)
*Maria von Losch, became Marlene Dietrich (German)
*Jane Peters became Carole Lombard (Scottish, Dutch, North German)
*Mary Kaumeyer became Dorothy Lamour
* Douglas Ullman, became Douglas Fairbanks
*Archibald Alec Leach became Cary Grant (old High German, old English)
*Roy Schere, Jr., became Rock Hudson
*Constance Ockelman, became Veronica Lake
*Burle Icle Ivanhoe, became Burl Ives
*Ehrich Weiss, became Harry Houdini
*Muzyad Yahkhoob, became Danny Thomas
*Michael Shalhoub, became Omar Sharif
*Rose Louise Hovick, became Gypsy Rose Lee
*Issur Danieltovitch, became became Kirk Douglas
*Sarah Jane Fulks, became Jane Wyman (German)
*Shirley Schrifft, became Shelley Winters (Germanic)
*Joe Yule, Jr., became Mickey Rooney (German)
*Emmanuel Goldenberg, became Edward G. Robinson
*Audrey Kathleen Ruston, became Audrey Hepburn 
Note For Hepburn-(parents Joseph Victor Anthony Ruston (Nazi Sympathizer) and Ella Van Hoekstra (the former Baroness Ella a Dutch aristocrat, both members of the British Union of Fascists. Information provided by Unity Mitford, friend of Ella van Heemstra, follower of Adolph Hitler.
*Doris von Kappelhoff, became Doris Day
*Norma Jeane Baker Mortenson became Marilyn Monroe (Norwegian)
*Allen Konigsberg, becomes Woody Allen 
*Donabella Mullenger, became Donna Reed
*Joseph Levitch, became Jerry Lewis
*Bernard Swartz, became Tony Curtis
*Leonard Rosenberg, became Tony Randall
*Howard Cohen, became Howard Cosell
*Michael Gubitosi, became Robert Blake (Germanic)
*Jacob Cohen, became Rodney Dangerfield
*Sidney Leibowitz, became Steve Lawrence
*Alexandra Zuck, became Sandra Dee (Polish, Ukraine, Russian, Swiss, German, Scottish)
*Mladen Sekulovich became Karl Malden
*Stefania Federkiewicz, became Stephanie Powers
*Bert Jacobson, became Bert Parks
*Walter Palanuik, became Jack Palance
*Bernice Frankel, became Beatrice Arthur
*Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr., became John Denver
*Eugene Orowitz, became Michael Landon
*Jerome Siberman, became Gene Wilder
Harvey Lee Yeary, II became Lee Majors (French name, Germanic origin)
*Larry Zeigler became Larry King
*Barry Alan Pincus, became Barry Manilow
*Barbara Huffman, became Barbara Eden
*Joan Sandra Molinsky, became Joan Rivers.
*Dame Helen Mirren (born in London to a family of Russian émigrés) her real name was Illiana Lydia Petrovna Mironova). Russian.
*Joyce Frankenberg, became Jane Seymour
*Chaim Witz, became Gene Simmons (from KISS) born in Haifa, Israel
*Angelina Voight became Angelina Jolie (German)
*Winona Horowitz, became Winona Ryder

Aspersions Cast That Jews Dominate The Media in the Modern Age 
*The Times: New York Times, LA Times, Chicago Times 
LA Times: Founded, 1847. (owned by Tribune Company). 
Tribune Company Chicago, Illinois-Key People Sam Zell and Eddy Hartenstein, Co-CEO Publishers. It is the nation’s second-largest newspaper publisher, with ten daily newspapers and commuter tabloids including Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Hartford Courant, Orlando Sentinel, South Florida Sun Sentinel, Baltimore Sun and The Morning Call, among others.

Through Tribune Broadcasing, the company operates 23 television stations, WGN America on national cable, and Chicago’s WGN-AM. The group’s combined reach is more than 80 percent of U.S. television households. Investment Interests include the Food Network. 
It’s national network sites owned with partners include CareerBuilder.com, Cars.com, Apartments.com and Topix.net. (50 websites overall) affecting more than 20 million people. 
Sam Zell was born in 1941, to Jewish Immigrant parents from Poland. He is Chairman of Equity Group Investments, Equity International, Equity Residential, Equity Lifestyle Properties, Chairman of Capital Trust, Inc., Anixter, Covanta and Tribune. Media Investments: Between 1992 and 1999, Zell’s Chillmark fund owned Jacor Communications, Inc., a successful radio broadcast group that included a television station. The company was sold to Clear Channel Communications in 1999. 
On April 2, 2007, the Tribune Company announced its acceptance of Zell’s offer to buy the Chicago Tribune, the Los Angeles Times, and other Media assets. He plans to sell the Chicago Cubs, and sell the company’s 25 percent interest in Comcast Sportsnet Chicago. 
Controversial Statement

Ethnicity In General Downplayed In Hollywood-In Exchange For Neutral Identities

*Rudolpho D’Antonguolla, became Rudolph Valentino
*Gladys Smith, became Mary Pickford
*John Blythe became John Barrymore. (Scottish)
*Joan De Havilland, became Joan Fontaine (French)
*Lucille Le Sucur, became Joan Crawford (Canadian) 
*Richard Jenkins, became Richard Burton
*Harry Lillis Crosby, became Bing Crosby (Scottish, English)
*Leslie Towns Hope, became Bob Hope (English)
*Frances Gumm, became Judy Garland (English, Anglo-Saxon, Irish)
*Charles Carter, became Charleton Heston (Scottish)
*Marion Morrison, became John Wayne. (English, Welsh, Scottish)
*Natasha Gurdin, became Natalie Wood (Welsh)
*Julia Wells, became Julie Andrews (English
*Ruby Stevens, became Barbara Stanwyck
*Leonard Slye, became Roy Rogers
*Pierino Roland Como, became Perry Como (Italian, Sicillian)
*Dino Crocetti, became Dean Martin
*Rocco Francis Marchegiano, became Rocky Marciano
*Vera Jane Palmer, became Jayne Mansfield
*Seth Ward, became became Jimmy Dean
*Edna Gilhooley, became Ellen Burstyn (Irish, Gaelic)
*Maurice Micklewhite, became Michael Caine 
Shirley Beatty, became Shirley MacLaine (Scottish, Irish)
*Jack Joy, became Rodney Dangerfield (English, Irish, Scottish)
*Peggy Middleton, became Yvonne De Carlo
*Sophia Scicolone, became Sophia Loren
*Arnold Dorsey, became Engelbert Humperdinck
*Reginald Dwight, became Elton John
*John Joseph Ryan, became Jack Lord
*Patsy McClenny, became Morgan Fairchild
*Krishna Bhanji, became Ben Kingsley (Hindi)
*Thomas Jones Woodward, became Tom Jones
*David Robert Jones, became David Bowie
*Cherilyn Sarkisian, became Cher (Greek) promoted Cherokee heritage
*Vincent Damon Furnier, became Alice Cooper (French, means “oven”).
*Eleanor Gow, became Elle McPherson (Scottish)
*Georgios Panayiotou, became George Michael
*Madonna Louise Ciccione, became Madonna
*Thomas Mapother IV, became Tom Cruise (English, Irish)
*Demetria Guynes, became Demi Moore (Irish)
*Lou Upchurch, became Lou Diamond Phillips
*Nicholas Coppola, became Nicholas Cage.
*Michael Douglas, became Michael Keaton (not related to Michael or Kirk Douglas). 
Hispanic Hollywood Downplayed Ethnicity For European Acceptance

*Raquel Tejada, became Rachel Welch
*Richard Valenzuela, became Ritchie Valens
*Linda Jean Cordova Carter, became Lynda Carter
*Ramon Estevez ,became Martin Sheen
*Carlos Irwin Estevez, became Charlie Sheen


In April 2008, Zell made a controversial comment about the subprime mortgage crisis at a conference in Los Angeles, where he stated, “This country needs a cleansing. We need to clean out all those people who never should have bought in the first place, and not give them sympathy.”

Odd thing for a Jew to recommend a “cleansing” in America that affected primarily millions of “ethnic people” in the country. Yet, Here We Are! Have we had enough?

*20th Century Fox and Fox News grew from the original MGM Studios. 
*Loews dominates the Theater Industry at owners of Loews AMC Theaters in Malls or connected to Shopping Complexes across the country.

*Larry King has dominated the airwaves on CNN from the 1980s to December, 2010.
*The Founder of Face book (with over half a billion users) is young billionaire Mark Zuckerberg. His Social Media site claims credit for creating the Election of President Barack Obama. Zuckerberg’s Facebook claims to be “the engine that powered the Presidency,” even “making him President” by starting Face Book Students for Obama.

*Jewish persons also dominate the Music Industry as Record Company executives, including Legal, Financial and Video Production industries for Hip Hop and Rap, which has been a publicly discussed contentious-relationship tackled by many Black artists.

Ethnicity In General Downplayed In Hollywood-In Exchange For Neutral Identities

*Rudolpho D’Antonguolla, became Rudolph Valentino
*Gladys Smith, became Mary Pickford
*John Blythe became John Barrymore. (Scottish)
*Joan De Havilland, became Joan Fontaine (French)
*Lucille Le Sucur, became Joan Crawford (Canadian) 
*Richard Jenkins, became Richard Burton
*Harry Lillis Crosby, became Bing Crosby (Scottish, English)
*Leslie Towns Hope, became Bob Hope (English)
*Frances Gumm, became Judy Garland (English, Anglo-Saxon, Irish)
*Charles Carter, became Charleton Heston (Scottish)
*Marion Morrison, became John Wayne. (English, Welsh, Scottish)
*Natasha Gurdin, became Natalie Wood (Welsh)
*Julia Wells, became Julie Andrews (English
*Ruby Stevens, became Barbara Stanwyck
*Leonard Slye, became Roy Rogers
*Pierino Roland Como, became Perry Como (Italian, Sicillian)
*Dino Crocetti, became Dean Martin
*Rocco Francis Marchegiano, became Rocky Marciano
*Vera Jane Palmer, became Jayne Mansfield
*Seth Ward, became became Jimmy Dean
*Edna Gilhooley, became Ellen Burstyn (Irish, Gaelic)
*Maurice Micklewhite, became Michael Caine 
Shirley Beatty, became Shirley MacLaine (Scottish, Irish)
*Jack Joy, became Rodney Dangerfield (English, Irish, Scottish)
*Peggy Middleton, became Yvonne De Carlo
*Sophia Scicolone, became Sophia Loren
*Arnold Dorsey, became Engelbert Humperdinck
*Reginald Dwight, became Elton John
*John Joseph Ryan, became Jack Lord
*Patsy McClenny, became Morgan Fairchild
*Krishna Bhanji, became Ben Kingsley (Hindi)
*Thomas Jones Woodward, became Tom Jones
*David Robert Jones, became David Bowie
*Cherilyn Sarkisian, became Cher (Greek) promoted Cherokee heritage
*Vincent Damon Furnier, became Alice Cooper (French, means “oven”).
*Eleanor Gow, became Elle McPherson (Scottish)
*Georgios Panayiotou, became George Michael
*Madonna Louise Ciccione, became Madonna
*Thomas Mapother IV, became Tom Cruise (English, Irish)
*Demetria Guynes, became Demi Moore (Irish)
*Lou Upchurch, became Lou Diamond Phillips
*Nicholas Coppola, became Nicholas Cage.
*Michael Douglas, became Michael Keaton (not related to Michael or Kirk Douglas). 
Hispanic Hollywood Downplayed Ethnicity For European Acceptance

*Raquel Tejada, became Rachel Welch
*Richard Valenzuela, became Ritchie Valens
*Linda Jean Cordova Carter, became Lynda Carter
*Ramon Estevez ,became Martin Sheen
*Carlos Irwin Estevez, became Charlie Sheen


One final surname change; regarding Alexandre Dumas (the father): 
Dumas Davy de la Pilleterie (born July 24, 1802, died December 5, 1870), became Alexandre Dumas (pere).

Dumas was born in Villers Cotterets in the department of Aisne, in Picardy, France.
His paternal grandparents were Marquis Alexandre-Antoinette Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and General Commissaire in the Artillery in the colony of Saint Domingue-now Haiti, and Marie Cesette Dumas, an Afro-Caribbean Creole of mixed French and African ancestry.

Dumas was a French writer best known for his historical novel of high adventure. His most memorable works were, the Count of Monte Cristo and the Three Musketeers. 
Interesting Subject. Thanks All Praises Due To The Creator for allowing me to weigh-in on the matter. 
Sincerely,
Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman

End of Part II
 

 

Colonial White Surnames: Part 1

August 20th, 2011

The Question: “What do you all think about so-called Conscious Negroes in Amerikkka who still carry a Colonial “White” Surname Identity here in the late year 2010—Who are they really working for?”
My Answer (Part 1): This deeply considered issue is at once personal, yet a legitimate Human Rights subject at its core. Certain aspects of the issue tugs at unfurled tangled webs weaved of deception, which concurrently allows reattachment to lost culture, while at the same time allowing some to escape the specter of shed cultural identities dogged by racial discrimination as discussed in the present document. As a matter of fact, my entire individual (and extended) family dealt with this precise controversial topic in the late 1960s and ‘70s. I was very young then, but my approach (since that time) has been drawn from my personal experience, as well as from my perspective as a Genealogist, Historian, Family History Researcher and Tribal Consultant. Therefore my response is naturally a culmination of many combined areas of interests related to Urban Ministries, Tribal Education, plus the additional dynamics of Linguistics. Medical occupation excepted.
First I must say that Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Marcus Garvey, A Philip Randolph and Roscoe Dunjee (for instance) operated as extremely “Conscious Negroes” in full unquestioned dedication to the Freedom, Sovereignty, Survival and/or Advancement of their collective people, while at the same time carrying what could be deemed as a ‘Colonial “White” Surname Identity, yet they were far closer to historical memories and ties to the Motherland than any other melanated people in the Hemisphere today. We revere these heroes culturally despite the origin of their names or failure to change them to please man‘s temporal (emotional) whims, rather than cerebral (intellectual) desires born of nature, which neither diminishes, nor enhances their incredible (and as yet unrivaled) Black Advocacy.
We are therefore faced with a theoretical hypothesis which contends that “White” Colonial surnames adhered-to by descendants of African Ancestored peoples equates to non-conscious mentality (or designation as working for suspect entities). Such a theory (in my opinion) renders itself vulnerable to challenge as inherently flawed. One could also make the related argument that certain extremely prominent U.S. figureheads bearing surnames of African origin may be operating in far more harmful and damaging capacity than persons with European surnames who are contributing to African advancement.
Would you have ever imagined that the present-day Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma would be named Chad Smith? A descendant of Confederate Indians, he spearheaded the advocacy campaign to exile Ethnic Cherokee Freedmen from that Nation, even though many Black Cherokee Elders continued to speak their native language and live as their people did before Oklahoma became a State. How many people also know that a Black Creek Elder exiled from his Nation, strode into the Creek Council Chambers to dress-down council members in the authentic Muskogee Creek language?
How many more understand the potential damage caused by a U.S. President with an African surname who refuses to recognize the sovereignty of Ethnic Black Indians and Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes, many of whom descends from persons bearing aboriginal surnames such as Folsom, Katubby and more? Is it ironic or immoral?
Aboriginals-Black Indians and Name Changes
Aboriginals in this hemisphere have had to deal with dual names from initial incursion (contact) with Catholic Christians. Inca Ruler, Atahualpa was persuaded by Hernando de Soto (functioning under orders of Pizarro) to accept forced conversion to Christianity before being murdered by order of Lead Conquistador, Pizarro. Atahualpa, was baptized (Christianized) as Juan Santos Atahualpa and subsequently murdered by strangulation on August 29th, 1533. His baptism merely spared him from being burned at the Stake.
Six short years later, Hernando de Soto having served under Pizarro, left Peru in anticipation of an elevation in his political status in the hemisphere, as evidenced by his official appointment as Adelanto (and Governor) of Cuba. The position entailed a voyage of discovery and travel through the Aboriginal Indian Country first from Cuba to Florida, from there on through to the interior of Alabama, Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. 
De Soto’s Expedition plundered, looted, kidnapped Rulers and converted Aboriginals to Catholic Christianity, all the while changing their names until he was eventually killed by the Chickasaws. Although De Soto’s trek though the interior  of Indian Country wrought so much havoc and destruction, his documented accounts preserved a great deal of data from which we can extrapolate historical knowledge of the aboriginals he encountered, including their names.
De Soto’s narratives identified Indian slaves as Tamenes, which is an Ethiopian name for “burden bearers.” There are still Ethiopians in the modern age with this name. Columbus called the dark aboriginals Indians (meaning, Dravidians). 48 years later, De Soto came along and called the dark people in the Indian Country, Ethiopians. He also documented running into an Indian Canoeist in the Gulf emerging from the rushes who was “big as a Philistine, Black as an Ethiopian.“ What’s more De Soto remarked over the many similarities between Atahualpa and Tuscaloosa, using both names in the same sentence.
Now, Atahualpa was the aboriginal name given to him by his parents, father (Inca Ruler) Huayna Capac and his mother, a Princess of Quito. Juan Santos, the Christianized portion of his name can legitimately be rejected (in this age) in order to restore natural dignity and honor to his aboriginal memory by the Indigenous people of Peru. 
In regards to Tuscaloosa, which was the aboriginal name of the Ruler of the Ethnic Indian people of Alabama and Mississippi, the same applies to him. His name wasn’t changed, so much as it was translated. Whites cannot change Tuscaloosa’s name, so they have sought to change our perception of what is meant by “Black Warrior.” What we do know is that “Black Warriors” and “Slave” are two different classes of humanity. 
The ancient word (in Choctaw) preceding Tuscaloosa was CushTushka (also the name of the most ancient Choctaw Settlement, which means “Cush Warrior“). 
There is no mistaking what was being pointed out by the ancient Aboriginal Choctaw.
Tuscaloosa was the name given by his parents. Tuscaloosa told De Soto (according to the narratives) that his “Fathers had always been free,” as he protested and displayed “haughty insult” over being kidnapped, denied free movement and ransomed for safe passage through territories hostile to De Soto‘s European Expedition.
Tuscaloosa is an aboriginal Choctaw language word and name, meaning “Black Warrior.” De Soto maintained that the word also applied to the people living in the ruler’s various Tribal Towns, as well as the entire region and sphere of his influence.
There were a few scattered (but important) Bands of Choctaws in Mississippi after having been removed from their first Alabama settlements. One of the largest groups are the Mississippi Choctaw at Philadelphia. However, there were smaller Ethnic Bands counted by McKennon during the Dawes era that were cheated out of enrollment because they were identified as descending from an African Ancestor. There were so many that Congress refused to officially sanction or recognize McKennon’s enrollees living primarily in Hattiesburg (Forest County), Washington County and other Counties. 
What is unusual about these Choctaws is that a great many enrolled by McKennon had what I call “masculine surnames” such as Joe Joshua, Sillin Jeff, Cephus Sam and Mose Dixon (also found among the Federally recognized Mississippi Choctaw Nation).
Examples: Rufus L. Johnson (a name found in my ancestral family) can also be found on McKennon’s rolls, under the interview of Belle Gilbert:
Belle Gilbert’s father was Rufus L. Johnson, her mother was Martha G. Leflore.
Martha Leflore’s father was Benjamin Leflore. She was also the sister of Campbell Leflore according to her interview.
Now, Benjamin Leflore was the father of Campbell Leflore. Benjamin Leflore and Greenwood Leflore were brothers. Greenwood Leflore represented Choctaws at the making of the Treaty of 1830 (Dancing Rabbit Creek). He was Chief of the Choctaw Nation. The above information proves that Martha Leflore was the niece of the Chief.
Rufus L. Johnson gave further testimony regarding Mary Witt. Her father was Jack Leflore (Indian), but her mother Caroline Leflore was testified to be Indian and White.
Witness Rufus L. Johnson gave additional testimony that Mary Witt’s mother Caroline was a Slave of Benjamin Leflore and that Caroline was a Negro because her mother was a colored woman.. Further Benjamin Leflore, Mary Witt’s Uncle and Jack Leflore were brothers. Therefore Mary Witt was also the niece of the Chief of the Choctaw Nation.
Mary Witt made the following declaration: “I am part colored” and although the Commissioner knew full well that she was the daughter of Jack Leflore, brother of Choctaw Chief Greenwood Leflore and her uncle was Benjamin Leflore, he told Mary Witt that, “I would have to have other clear evidence before I could enroll you.”
The two ladies, Gilbert and Witt (nieces of the Chief of the Choctaw Nation) were subsequently denied enrollment; 1. because of African Ancestry and, 2. because Congress failed to acknowledge McKennon’s rolls due to the large volume of Choctaw Negroes.
We can therefore state that Black Choctaws were exiled, forcefully detached and denied enrollment in the Nation of their ancestry due to Racism at the hands of U.S. Agents.
Meanwhile back at the Choctaw enrollment camp; Charley Wiley (Choctaw Full-Blood) along with his Negro wife and their 5 children, plus his 2 sisters (one of whom had a half-breed Choctaw/half Negro husband) and their children were all enrolled by the Commission.
Joe Joshua (Choctaw Full-Blood) was enrolled, but was unmarried without children at the time. This name surfaced in the family of Mary Elizabeth Joshua Duncan of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Her dad, Edward Joshua was born on the ancient Choctaw reservation at Chunchula, Alabama before removal. One of her brothers was named Joe Joshua. Mary Elizabeth Joshua is the Grandmother of Chief Edgar Molette. Today, the only remnant feature of Tuscaloosa Choctaws (viewed by De Soto) is the Black Warrior River.
The majority and largest contingent of Tuscaloosa’s people were removed to Oklahoma during the 1830s Trail of Tears. The Indian Freedmen of the Choctaw Nation built Tuscaloosa Academy (a Freedmen boarding school) in the Choctaw Nation to honor their great Chief‘s memory (the Band of Angela Molette‘s people). 
Who can say whether these names were “White” or simply claimed by Whites?
Here is another example of a what might be perceived as a “White” surname for you, also from McKennon’s Rolls; Mary Campbell. Her mother was documented as half Choctaw, part Negro and part White. She had been a Slave and was described as “yellow.” 
The interview stated that she did not know her Father, except that he “belonged to an Indian.” The Commission grilled Mary about whether her father was a Slave of an Indian or not. Mary’s answer was, “his Father was the man he belonged to.” 
In the Euro-mindset, “belong” equates to “ownership” (chattel). To the English deficient Aboriginal population having little understanding of the language of the newcomers, the subject of “possession” and “ownership” were difficult abstract concepts and their perception of “belongs to” (which was closer to an Iran males’ idea of ownership of their children, even stronger than his wife‘s claim) was deeply misunderstood by Whites. 
As a Genealogist I can say that tracking all of this information would have been very nearly impossible had the names of any respondents changed during any point in the enrollment process or subsequent removals. 
I would be remiss here, if I failed to mention a very intense discussion I had with two men from Alabama (regarding surnames) as a moment of peace, solitude and admiration was shockingly shattered by them from a place, perhaps a few feet away from where I stood viewing the Gallery Photos in the Mashantucket Pequot Museum, in Connecticut a few years ago. I was in the company of Professor Barbara Molette, BIU President Barbara Mitchell Finley and Chief Edgar Molette. A very tipsy brother and his friend loudly laughed in a sneering taunt pronounced arrogantly before a group of a gathering Whites (in an odd attempt to amuse all within earshot of the gallery) that; “These People Are Niggers!!”

 

I was so insulted by the unexpected derogatory rant that my ears started burning. 
For one thing, it’s been a personal policy of mine (from a very young age) never to use that word. Now here was a man using it loudly in a place of culture and refinement in an ill-conceived attempt to drag this Nation down before others.
I took this brother on (mainly because the other visitors stepped back) Black Indians United Legal Defense recognizes the necessity of seizing the right moment to educate our people when they are willing to listen.
The brother questioned me loudly about what he called, “the White last names of the Indians” as if he did not know that they had also been victimized by the ancestors of all the White Folks he sought to entertain. I took him all through Massaoit, the Militarized Pilgrims at Natick, Massachusetts who documented the aboriginals as “Black“ at contact. We talked about King Philips War, Father Eliot, Tuspaquin the Black Sachem and more. I must give the brother credit, even though he was tipsy, he listened, seemed satisfied and left with his friend.
It was cathartic to release knowledge to the brother and to provide new information that this man needed to stop him from being a public fool. However, I also remember feeling that it was high time that our people stopped behaving like mortal enemies simply to entertain White People. I recalled Marvin Gaye’s very mellow, Brother, Brother! What’s Goin’ On! I spoke enough about the massacres to calm this brother down.
After our educational session in the Pequot Museum Gallery, I happened to wander into the theater to see the movie featuring Pequot history…suddenly, it all became too much for me. I was overcome with grief and emotion from the battles for survival depicted on the screen, the senseless killing, slaughter and burning of the elders, women, children and infants combined with those battles still occurring in life right there in the Gallery of the Pequot Museum. All my thoughts about our class action claim (then pending in the U.S. Federal Court of Claims), all my travel, advocacy work, classes, consults, documentation collection, teaching, taking in more information-learning, having others rely upon me, battling, fighting, challenging, being challenged, the monumental responsibility of it all.
I was nearly inconsolable. These people were being killed on screen before me. From my point of view, it felt as though I was looking through my ancestor’s eyes in Dejavue. My mind was seeing the Choctaw battle of Mauvilla (Mobile) all over again, and it was just too much! The Pequot Movie was yet another reminder that we are forced to fight for the elevation of our mass of humanity and restoring the dignity of the ancestors, making certain someone answers for the  Genocide still affecting us. The wrenching poverty experienced in this disgusting excuse of a depression economy. The fight against our right to rising up out of this system to stand on our own two feet in the peace and serenity promised by our Treaties must be addressed, corrected and re-compensated. It is up to us to fill in the historical gaps created by Euro-American Neglect of our people.
I am proud that the Pequots had enough moxie to take on Ronald Reagan and his administration to gain Federal Recognition and made a deal with the State of Connecticut that makes each member independently wealthy, right on my dears! I’ve got nothing but massive respect for every move they made. Especially the call that brought their members back home to the remainder of their lands, standing on faith that their efforts would be rewarded. I want the same thing  for all the Tribes and Bands affiliated with Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund and Harvest Institute Freedmen Federation.
 
Name Changes by North American Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s
The interim of time between 1865 and 1965 saw a great era of cultural change among African Ancestored Americans as they inched ever closer to the anniversary of emancipation. They took stock of their peculiar situation, which surely appeared dreary as they counted lost reconstruction-era social gains, including lands and personal freedom in record numbers that left them yearning to throw off the vestiges of the yoke of oppression, to live free and natural as intended by nature. Part of that expression entailed shaking loose the individual grip imposed by European law for 346 years upon Black life in America from 1619 through 1965. What grew out of this internal national self-assessment was an unhappiness erupting on the heels of reaction to the unabated terror of Ku Klux Klan lynch murders, intimidation, manipulation, and intolerance brought front and center to the American mainstream, in a racially charged clash now known as “the Civil Rights Movement”.
A simultaneous rise in religious and social organizations steeped in Afrocentric Philosophies called for African Ancestored Americans to divest themselves of all things European. They were quite correct in their assessment that the American Educational System was based strictly upon Eurocentric history, perspectives and philosophies with no room for divergent opinions, individual histories or the inclusion of the perspective of pre-existing cultures.
Name Changes
We must not forget to address “nicknames” common in the old south, which are mirror-image practices employed by African Ancestored Americans and Native Americans who call them “beauty names” or “spirit names.” Nearly the entire  spectrum of former Indian Nations comprised of the precise geographical land area recognized as the Blackbelt of the American south is filled with persons having nicknames, which have nearly replaced birth names.
A modern adornment of second name or nickname applications has been employed by Gang-bangers used to identify persons, neighborhoods, areas, districts or regions as a form of set identification, occurring from inception to the present day. As I said, it’s a personal choice.
It also seems that name changes have been the norm since the beginning the time. We can also point to examples of name changes throughout the Bible, even Jesus was known by many names. I pointed out the popularity and successful movements of earlier named heroes, while adhering to what some may consider as “White” surnames. Following will be examples of persons achieving their zenith only after changing their names (which was no doubt an intensely personal action).

Religious and Organization Mandates For Name Changes
A few of the more prominent major religious organizations embracing mandates to throw-off European “White” surnames were Moorish Americans, the Nation of Islam, Hebrew Israelites, Black Panthers and others. In the 1960s very prominent African Ancestored Americans changed their names after converting to Sunni Islam. 

*McKinley Morganfield, became Muddy Waters.

*Timothy Drew, was reborn as the Moorish Prophet Noble Drew Ali
*Elijah Robert Poole, was reborn as Elijah Muhammad
*Malcolm Little, was reborn as Malcolm X
*Hulon Mitchell, was reborn as YAHWEH BEN YAHWEH
*Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., was reborn as Muhammad Ali
*Ferdinand Lewis (Lew) Alcindor, Jr., was reborn as Kareem Abdul Jabbar
(List not exhaustive: only a random sample has been provided) 
Blacks In Entertainment Changed Their Names 
*Lincoln Perry, became Stepin Fetchit
*Eleanora Fagan, became Billie Holliday

*Loretta Mary Aitken, became Moms Mabley
*Delloreese Patricia Early, became Della Reese
*Carol Diahann Johnson, became Diahann Carroll
*Elias Bates, became Bo Diddley
*John Henry Ramistella, became Johnny Rivers
*Richard Penniman, became Little Richard
*Ernest Evans, became Chubby Checker
*Steveland Morris Hardaway, became Stevie Wonder
*Caryn Johnson, became Whoopie Goldberg
*Anna Mae Bullock, became Tina Turner
*La Donna Gaines, became Donna Summer
*Bobby Moore, became Ahmad Rashad

*Cordozar Calvin Broadus, became Snoop Dog
*O’Shea Jackson, became Ice Cube
*Dwayne Douglas Johnson, became The Rock
*Eldridge Woods, became Tiger Woods

(List not exhaustive: only a random sample has been provided).
Sincerely,
Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman


XX

 

Chocolate Indigenous Icing On The Cake of Native American Heritage Month 2010

August 20th, 2011

PARENT~1
WISHAM~1

  

Chocolate Indigenous Icing On The Cake of Native American Heritage Month 2010
(Motivated By Success)
It’s on Sai Iksa! We have been blessed by confirmation of ancient Native lore and oral traditions regarding our true history. Possession of the information has renewed our spirit to continue on in our rough-hewn companion mission to wake up the warriors languishing at the grassroots. We have much more to accomplish from this point forward.
 
An even larger core of our people now understand that Ethnic Black Aboriginals were in existence here in the Americas long before Europeans brought African Slaves to the continent having been proven, for instance, in discoveries announced in the year 1958 by premier Archaeologist Malcolm J. Rogers. He was the highly sought-after “Dean of Modern Archaeology” and Director of San Diego’s prestigious Museum of Man for 18 years. Malcolm J. Rogers’s conclusions were drawn over 40 years of study of the remains of Black Indians that were “The First San Diegans.” What he also proved is that development of Black Aboriginals in the west was wholly different from those in the east.
 
Rogers’ dramatic exposé appeared in the science section of the San Diego Union Tribune (contributed by Science-writer Bryant Evans) giving evidence of a widely disbursed aboriginal culture which he called “San Diegitos” and were likely the Pericu on the U.S. side of the border and Cochimi on the Mexican side. They were also referred to by other local names of Tribal Bands spreading out from the West Coast to the boundary of the Interior of numerous Pacific States. He uncovered a bounty of remains and documented proof that the Pacific West Aboriginals resembled what he deemed to be “Australian Black fellows” [“hairy and Black”] and the remote age of his findings meant that they were among the very first San Diegans. Roger’s studies confirms that Africans and persons of African phenotype have been traveling to this continent of their own volition for centuries and gave rise to a new people unique and indigenous to the Americas.
 
These ancient people were also indelibly linked by parental influences and indisputable connections, such as use of labretifery and other items of cultural patrimony, including implements, along with similar burial practices found among their prehistoric remains. The nose-piercing  (labretifery) thought by early American Ethnologists to be unique and particular to Africa, (Dravidian) India, Brazil and New Guinea was also used by the Black Chiefs of Graciosa Bay in Parra Polynesia, as well as a practice employed by Ethnic (Black) Aboriginals in the Americas. Labretifery was in prevalent use by the Nakoaktok, Nez Perce (Washington State, Idaho), Walla Walla, Wisham, Hopi Mishong (Arizona up to 1898), even certain Bands of Cherokees (Asst. Principal Chief George Lowrey). Of course, one must add the Tecuitli worn by the Great Chiefs of Central America.
 
Other discussions of Rogers’ finds revolves around the possibility that the Ethnic Aboriginals may have also been similar to the Lapita, Tasmanians, Melanesians, New Guineans (explaining the “Australoid or “Australo-African” phenotype) in additional remains discovered by Spanish Archaeologists in Baja, California, Loreto, Mexico, and coincidently shared ethnicity with Brazil‘s ancient Luzia, along with more than 30 other members of her Tribe. These Ethnic (Black) Aboriginal remains predates the oldest known Native American remains and lies 10,000+ miles south of the Bering Strait. The ancient aboriginal homes of the Ethnic (Black) Aboriginals and first San Diegans now lie buried beneath what ranks among the most wealthy and affluent modern-day home-sites in the Nation at Encinitas, La Jolla, Oceanside (San Luis Rey). The evidence of their inhabitance and remains (now in the hands of the U.S. Government and/or Smithsonian) ran nearly the length and breadth of California and its interior through Oregon into Washington, but may have originated in Loreto and Baja, Mexico.
 
These Ethnic (Black) Aboriginals were the original uncompensated builders of the Missions and the first forceful Catholic Converts (neophytes, neofitas) for which Padres in 1700 and 1800s received credit, praise and a reserved place in the annals of European History (like, Father Junipero Sera). As per usual the Aboriginal builders and their true ethnicity were never acknowledged, mentioned, credited or properly thanked by the Pope, the Catholic Church or America. It is disgraceful how Black Indians were treated here.
 
In 1974, a Polish Craniologist revealed that no fewer than 13.5% of the skeletons from the pre-Colombian Olmec cemetery of Tlatilco were “Negroid”. That was Pre-Columbian, which means BEFORE COLUMBUS! In 1975, 2 “Negroid Skeletons” were found in the U.S. Virgin Islands. One wore a Pre-Columbian Indian wrist band! That was Pre-Columbian, which mean BEFORE COLUMBUS!
 
Scott Owsley, a Forensic Archaeologist working for the Smithsonian Institution changed the Ethnic Identity of African Ancestored Native Americans exhumed from the Jamestown Colony. Although they were dressed in Native American Garb, Buried in traditional Native Fashion in an area inhabited by Native Americans, Owsley committed pencil genocide by reclassifying the remains, which had lain 50 years as Natives since discovery. He decided that African admixture  cancelled their Native Identity and removed their protective status jeopardizing NAGPRA Protections and putting them at risk for destruction without further testing. This is desecration of remains and a crime against humanity. It is particularly heinous because Owsley knew full well of the existence of Black Tribes on the East Coast, yet none were consulted.
 
We also find it interesting that the ancient Wiyots and Yuroks of Northern California environs maintained settlements at Samoa, California. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management states only that the ancient Wiyots lived on Samoa (“centuries previous to this time“). While only 226 miles from San Francisco, Samoa, California lies approximately 2314 miles (or 2011 nautical miles) from the nearest Polynesian Island of Hawaii. This Northern California region was home to pre-Colonial settlements of Owyhee. This is also the third location of  an Ophir settlement among Black Indian Nations.
 
There was a “Samoa, California” for “centuries prior to the 21st Century” according to the BLM. The additional settlement of Owyhee, California (Hawaii) and the dramatic use of Polynesian leis, grass skirts and thatched palm/tule clothing in the traditional dress of California’s ethnic Indians also constitutes an extraordinary anthropological find. This information moves us away from America’s insistence upon disregarding Blacks in America as only a transient populace having no interest in the original soil.

We have now presented you with ancient connections between Melanesia, Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, Africa and the Ethnic Aboriginals of California and the Pacific States!
 
All of the precious maps wielded by the genealogical and anthropological communities need to be redrawn. Our people can no longer be blinded to the idea of “contact” between ancient Ethnic Cultures and Natives on the Mainland of the  Aboriginal Indian Country.
 
That to me is Chocolate Indigenous Icing On The Cake of Native American Heritage Month!
 
Sincerely, Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund 2023 E. Randolph Avenue Enid, Oklahoma 73701 Achoctaw1866@aol.com
 
*Black Indian Advocate, Dr. Angela Molette, Representative and Spokesperson of Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Chief of the United Tuscaloosa Band of Choctaw, President of Enid, Garfield County, Oklahoma NAACP Unit #6126.
 

 

   

A look At Moorish/Muslims Their Architecture and Influences In Indian Country

August 20th, 2011

 

The feigned moral indignity expressed by the ilk of highly paid, well placed public (Provocateurs)…nee commentators over the installation of a mosque at the 9/11 Ground Zero site, tends to confound researchers like me. Mosques’ (at least to my mind) are a grand testament to the ultimate in Moorish/Muslim Architecture. Beyond that, it is an apt reminder of the great body of Muslim-Moorish influences once pre-existing in the Hemispheric Aboriginal Indian Country of the places we now know to be the Americas.
 
I must admit to wondering what had gotten the Catholic Majesties in such a twisted bunch that it created an absolute blind rage and hatred of the Saracens that they would dare to chase them into the realm of unknown lands (and apparently past the sheer edge of the square world-a belief in vogue in their era) in order to vanquish them forever? 
What’s more, the Catholic Majesties with the blessing of his Papal Highness and the Holy See, sealed the fate of the Saracens and their descendants to a condition of “authorized Perpetual Slavery” forever, with a vow to vanquish their “Kingdoms, Duchies, counties, principalities (etc., etc.) wherever they exist” and promptly set their sights on the takeover of the Americas.
 
So it is the Pope and the Catholic Majesties themselves that gives us our first clue of the location of the extended Kingdoms of the Saracens as they descended upon the America’s with their Armada bearing Men of the Cloth, Sacristy Conversion Kits and Expedition of Heavily-armed Conquistadors at the ready to kill all Saracens resistant to forceful conversion to Christianity.
 
The Dum Diversas granted Hernando De Soto and others “Apostolic Authority” [on behalf of the Kings of Spain and Portugal]; (“We grant you by these present documents, with our Apostolic Authority, full and free permission to invade, search out, capture and subjugate the Saracens and pagans and any other unbelievers and enemies of Christ wherever they may be, as well as their kingdoms, duchies, counties, principalities, and other property {…..} and to reduce their persons into perpetual slavery”.
Note: Apostolic, means relating to the Pope…therefore stating Papal Authority.
 
Anyway, Hernando de Soto (and others) did come here into the interior Indian Country of the extended kingdom of Saracens and left numerous descriptions of his travails and very surprising narratives describing Indian settlements with Moorish Architecture, use of Moorish Mats, Moorish Darts, and Moorish Cloaks. He also wrote extensively about Indian Chiefs wearing “Almaizars” like “Moors. ” A later Trail of Tears description of Black Indians recalled the “Negro Indians” on horseback wearing “Almaizars” Moorish Wraps, giving them an “Arab Deportment.”
 
In “Carolina”, we found evidence of numerous Indian Settlements repurposed into Plantations, the name of one was “Sarazins” (“Sarazens“). The aboriginal name of the Indian Settlement was Saracens (at the point of contact with the Lord’s Proprietors). Even if the place was named by Whites as claimed by Euro-His-Story, it is telling in either case that the Black Indian inhabitants (prior to Colonial Settlement) were decreed “Saracens”. Further removing doubt, Ethnologists referred to the Aborigines as “Ishmaelites.”

Seafaring Moorish “Mariners” of Aboriginal Indian Country

Seafaring ancient Moroccans, Tunisians, Algerians, Turks and Canary Islanders were 
Marine travelers to the Americas. Their ventures actually started hundreds of years earlier by Moorish, Carthaginian and Phoenician Ancestors.

U.S. Ethnologist and First Director of the Smithsonian Institution, J.W. Powell documented in his early 1880s Report, an unusual find in Queen Weetamoor’s Rhode Island Province, a Burial Mound containing what he described as an ancient “Native in Carthaginian Armor”. A very detailed description of both the Native and the Armor was filed in the report, which included “leather straps” consistent with “maronquinerie” (or leatherware).
 
Due to the complex early Maritime claims upon the waterways, the 18th Century found Americans already functioning under working International Treaties with Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, and Tripoli. George Washington and President Thomas Jefferson maintained the Barbary States Treaties (Maritime Treaties) with the same Moorish countries. The status of the Treaties was reported in each Presidential State of the Union Address until 1830, which coincidently overlaps with the removal of the Indians from their Native Settlements to areas west of the Mississippi (along with their Black Tribal Citizens and Free Persons of Color-whom as we are reminded were neither considered Slaves, nor subject to U.S. or State or “Negro Laws” (as confirmed by the South Carolina Legislature in 1790). However, the forced Indian removals (along with their Ethnic Black Tribal Citizens and Free Persons of Color) resulted in cutoff communications between Maritime Nations and citizens situated in Sovereign Colonies and Black Indian Settlements.
 
Historic Moorish/Muslim Influences In The Aboriginal Indian Country

 


The name “Moors” has always referred to several historic and modern populations of Berbers, Black Africans and Africans of Arab descent from Northern Africa, Muslim Iberians and West Africans from Mali and Niger, who had been absorbed into the Almoravid dynasty, some of whom came to conquer and occupy the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslims (or followers of Islam), although earlier people had followed other religions. They called the territory Al Andalus, comprising most of what is now Spain and Portugal.
 
Almoravid Dynasty

The Almoravids were a Berber Muslim Dynasty that ruled Morocco and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th centuries. They may have originated in what is now Mauritania. Their founder was Abd Allah ibn Yasin, who by military force converted a number of Saharan tribes to his own reformed religion and then advance on Morocco. After his death c. 1059, Yusuf ibn Tashfin and his brother Abu Bakr came to power. Marrakech was founded (c. 1062) and was the center of a power empire. Called by the Moors in Spain to help stem Christian reconquest, Yusef entered Andalusia and defeated (c.1086) Alfonso VI of Castile. He later subdued the local Muslim rulers and governed Muslim Spain and N. Morocco (Abu Baker ruled over S Morocco). The dynasty also pushed south, destroying the ancient state of Ghana. In the 12th century they were attacked by the Almohads, who finally (by 1174) won both Morocco and Muslim Spain.

The Moors’ rule stretched at times as far as modern-day Mauretania, West African countries, and the Senegal River. Parts of Mauretania covered northern portions of modern Morocco and much of north western and central Algeria during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in classical literature as the Mauri.
 
The term Mauri, or variations, was later used by European traders and explorers of the 16th to 18th centuries to designate ethnic Berber and Arab groups speaking the Hassaniya Arabic dialect. In modern Iberia, the term is applied to people of Moroccan ethnicity.
 
The root of the word appears as; mouro, moro, moir, mor and maur. The root has taken on a variety of meanings, including “Moreno” from Latin. It can also mean “Black Person” or “Mulatto.” Moor came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Moros and Moriscos of Granada. Early ethnologists called Islamic Blacks in the Americas, “Mohammedans”. Guanches from the Canary Islands were descended from Berbers and Anthropologists confirm finding ancient markings from inhabitants in the Canary Islands bearing the letters (Z)(A)(N)(A)(T)(A), a direct reference to Berbers of Moorish Origin. What’s more, Colonies of these Canarians were also found among the tribes of pre-colonial (and Colonial era) “Carolina” in what is now the Americas.
 
Saracens

Saracens, refers to Muslim/Moors. In fact the name figures prominently in the ancient Biblical story of Isaac and Ishmael, the sons of Abraham. The children of Abraham and his Jewish wife Sarah are descended from Isaac. Further, the children of Abraham and Hagar, the Egyptian Slave are descended from Ishmael and are empty of, or “without” a genetic DNA contribution from Sarah (Genesis 16, 21:1–21) 
Therefore, the Muslim descendants of Ishmael are those empty of Sara or “without Sara” (born “outside of Sara”) and were referred to as “Saracens“. Some text refer to them as Hagarenes. Despite Egyptian ancestry this population are considered to be Arabs. 
It seems that since they were born of a “Slave” their enemies decided that descendants of Ishmael should be “perpetual Slaves” throughout every generation and wherever they lived (even after removing to faraway lands), although they were Blessed by God to be a mighty Nation, children of the desert, proficient with a bow.
 
Remembering An Aboriginal Moorish-Indian Queen
The next story centers upon the ancient settlement of a Black Indian Queen killed by beheading in 1674 as a preemptive act of aggression and example to others by the militarized settlers of Natick, Massachusetts in the opening salvo of King Philips War. Although Queen Weetamoor’s ancient Burial Mounds were in existence at contact, the great Mound treasure was not discovered until later. Her story appears out of sequence due to its strategic geographical situation as an Atlantic settlement of Indian-Moors.
 
Moors Dominate The Atlantic -Hassanimisco: Queen Weetamoor’s Settlement

Queen Weetamoor’s Country was Aquetneck (the Aboriginal name of Rhode Island).
She was ruler of Atlantic Coastal Black Indian Tribes and a kinsmen of Massasoit and King Phillip of the Narragansett and Wampanoag Nations. The Queen was“Squaw Sachem of Pocasset at Fall River (extent territory to Massachusetts). Weetamoor was also related to Tuspaquin, known as “the Black Sachem“ or Black Chief.
These were the Indian groups that welcomed the first Pilgrims in the Americas upon the word of Tisquantum or “Squanto”.
 
Hassani-Morisco: Moroccan Muslim/Moors- Weetamoor’s People

Weetamoor’s Tribal Town called Hassanimisco, was a compound word which seems to have contained two important elements specific to Morocco; the first being a similarity to the name derived from the spoken language of Morocco known as “Hassaniyya”. The second element being the word “Morisco”, the name given to Indigenous Moors in ancient times converted forcefully by the Spanish to Christianity.
Alternate names are: Hasanya and Hassani. The Classification is Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South and Arabic. The alternate Hassani, plus Morisco would produce Hassanimorisco, literally meaning Hassani speaking Moroccan Muslim/Moors. In short, they were a special group of Saracens escaping conversion and established Colonies in the Aboriginal Indian Country. Queen Weetamoor’s chosen Colony name gives great clues as to the era of their escape and settlement (11th or 12th century). 
They were Subjects of the Kings of Morocco. Further their tribal families would also settle Carolina and the interior.
 
Moors of Carolina

Besides Hassanimisco, large Moorish Native communities are known to have existed in Delaware. A city known as Cheswold, Delaware was composed of Moorish Natives with known connections to the Lenni-Lenape and Nanticoke Nations of Delmarva.
Extensive Moorish Colonies, Indian-Moor Communities and Creole Settlements among many other Tribal Nations existed in North and South Carolina (including Turks, Guanches and other “allies” captured by many Indian Census Reports, Treaties and historical documents (particularly among the Nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes). These nearly indescribable persons were subsequently categorized as “free persons of color,” “free blacks,” “Mulattos” and “Negro” among the Tribes.
 
Moors As Guides In The Aboriginal Indian Country
Hernando De Soto in Ancient Carolina
 
Hernando de Soto made several very curious remarks during his travels. He lamented in one discussion about his Moors being the ancestors of the Indians. The other observation being that after the loss of Moors from his Expedition, De  Soto’s team seems to have become vulnerable, unstable and directionally confused.
Hernando De Soto also recorded numerous items in ancient “Carolina” and Alabama bearing Moorish influences, such as those documented in their original narratives, confirmed by a Scholarly recounting in “DeSoto Chronicles, The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539-1543 by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, Editors, Pages 304-305 XVII; “The Army Leave Cofachiqui In Two Divisions”; “Besides these kinds of arrowheads made of copper, such as those they put on darts in Spain, there were others with harpoons, also made of copper, and in the form of small chisels, lances, and Moorish darts, which looked as if they had been made in  Castilla.”
 

De Soto remarked upon his Expedition leaving three African Ancestored People with the Aboriginal Indians between Guaxule, Chiaha, and Xuala; 2 were Negroes and the third was a Moor from Barbary, “a Berber“. [Moor From Barbary, Page 315 XX].
 
A fourth person left with the Tribe at (Coosa, Creek Nation) was a “Negro named Robles”.
 
Indian -Moor Colonies
Ancient Carolina Moorish/Muslim Settlements
 
1526-Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón Expedition
In 1526 an expedition led by Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón founded San Miguel de Guadalupe on the coast at Winyah Bay. San Miguel de Guadalupe is modern day Georgetown County, South Carolina. The Santee River (stream) flows through here. The North and South Confluence of the River can also be found in this county.
 
Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón’s Spanish-Moor colony is referenced as a “failed” colony in European History recounts because it did not result in an American Pilgrim Colony. Rather, de Ayllón’s Colony evolved as an integrated Native American-Moor Colony.
 
History: It is noted that in the 1520s the Chicora met Spanish explorer Allyón near Pawley’s Island. Tribal members were spread out in Clarendon, Florence, Georgetown, Horry, Marion and Williamsburg counties. In 1743, the Colonial Government forced nearly all the remaining Indians to move to the Catawba Community. Tribal Leaders met at Cherawtown.
 
In light of the Colonial Government’s attempt to concentrate area Natives into one vicinity an amalgamation Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón’s Spanish-Moors, the Winyuh, Pee Dee, Waccamaw, Santee, Chicora and Catawba was therefore created.
 
U.S. Geological Survey Records
San Miguel De Guadelupé (historical)-ID# 1232466 Class-Populated Place, County- Georgetown, State-SC, Latitude-331941N, Longitude-0791539W, Map-Georgetown South.
Winyah Bay Entrance-ID#1251481, Class-Channel, County-Georgetown, State- SC, Latitude-331154N, Longitude-0790856W, Map-Santee Point.
Citation: Quattlebaum, Paul. The Land Called Chicora. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press, 1956. P. 126.
 
1566-Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Expedition

 


In 1566, another Spaniard under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, founded a settlement in South Carolina comprised of some 800+ Spaniards and their families, including Spanish Moors. He named the settlement “Santa Elena.” (Menendez de Aivles’ nephew, noted to have been a “Mandingo” settled St. Augustine, Florida.)
 
Muslim/Moorish Influences In Carolina
South Carolina Historical Society Records in the Carologue, Spring 1993 Edition carried a story entitled, “Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks and an Asiatic Greek Lady. Some Examples of Non-European Diversity in South Carolina Prior to 1861 by James W. Hagy. The South Carolina Historical Society also kept documentation on the “Free Moors” of South Carolina, which was recorded in the Journal of the South Carolina House of Representatives.
 
Official Documentation Confirming Inhabitation of Free Moors in Carolina
(Extract from the Journal of the House of Representatives, 1789-1790)

 


“South Carolina had significant ethnic diversity during colonial times. It was home to Free Moors and Turks. While fighting in Defense of their country, the Moors were captured with their wives by a King of Africa. They were claimed by a Captain Clark who was to deliver them to an Ambassador of Morrocco, then living in England, to return them to their own country. Instead he brought them to America, where he sold them into slavery.” 
“They petitioned the South Carolina Legislature and the petition stated; That as free born subjects of a Prince now in Alliance with these United States; that they may not be considered as subject to a Law of this State (now in force) called the negro law.
They were freed by the South Carolina Legislature; Report That they have Considered the same and are of opinion that no Law of this State can in its Construction or Operation apply to them, and that persons who were Subjects of the Emperor of Morocco being Free in this State are not triable by the Law for the better Ordering and Governing of Negroes and other Slaves.

Resolved That this House do agree with the Report. They were free persons of color.” 
[From The State Records of South Carolina Journals of the 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 1789-1790 
MICHAEL E. STEVENS, Editor 
CHRISTINE M. ALLEN, Assistant Editor 
Published for the South Carolina Department of Archives and History 
by the University of South Carolina Press 
Columbia, SC]. South Carolina Historical Society.
 
Ophir of Solomon: Intriguing Landmarks-Indian Settlements 
And Repurposed Plantations in Carolina
 
Ophir Plantation-Locate, along the Santee, St. John’s Parish, Berkeley County (in present day Pinopolis). Earliest documented date of existence, 1685. A house was erected on the site in 1810. The site currently lies submerged under Lake Moultrie. Plantation lands were originally located near present-day Pinopolis. Ophir is yet another casualty of the Santee Cooper Hydroelectric and Navigation Project. This project displaced many families and communities, including historic homes, Indian Mounds, Burial Places, Cemeteries and Archaeological opportunities were lost as the area was flooded. Despite the fact that Thomas Porcher maintained Native American Slaves here from the point of initial contact, along with the presence and predominance of Indian Burial Mounds, the Ophir Graveyard was classified as “Black.“

Ophir Plantation-331740N 0800528W Chicora Map.
Ophir Canal (historical) Berkeley Chicora unknown 33.294ºN 80.091ºW
Note: Only 3 instances of use of the word appears in the Aboriginal Indian Country. All were associated purely with Indian Nations (2 Cherokee Settlements in North and South Carolina, as well of 1 Northern California Indian Settlements.
Ophir Indian Mounds (Indian) 
Ophir Plantation Cemetery (Black) 
Ophir Plantation
{Citation: Ophir Plantation; Manuscripts Department Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill SOUTHERN HISTORICAL COLLECTION #M-823 STONEY AND PORCHER FAMILY PAPERS Inventory Abstract: Records, 1799-1862, of a Charleston District, S.C., plantation}.
 
Negro Bay 1234351 Swamp Berkeley SC 331742N 0801321W Cross 
Feature ID: 1234351 Name: Negro Bay Class: Swamp Citation: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1:62,500-scale topographic maps; various edition dates. Represents new or changed names from published editions. Map name and year of publication follow (if known): Chicora/1921 Entry Date: 01-May-1993 Elevation(ft/m): 92/28
 
Black Tom Bay 1246906 Swamp Berkeley SC 330854N 0800537W Moncks Corner 
Note: The name Monck comes from, George Monck, the Duke of Albemarle (1608-1670) one of the original Lord‘s Proprietor;
 
Moorfield Plantation-Location-Chicora, Berkeley, SC
Moorfield Swamp-Location, Chicora, Berkeley, SC.
USGS Location:
Moorfield Swamp (historical) 1234340 Swamp Berkeley SC 331846N 0800639W Chicora.
Moorfield Plantation Cemetery (Black).
Black Mingo Swamp (names translates to “Black King Swamp“ or “Black Chief Swamp”).
 
Indian field (Plantation Cemetery identified as Black).
Indian Field Methodist Campground: National Register of Historic Places #73001707, added 1973. Also known as Indian Fields. About 4 mi. NE of St. George on SC 73. Period of Significance-1825-1849. Indian Field Cemetery Classified as “Black.”
 
Pooshee Plantation-Location, Chicora, St. Johns Berkeley Parish, Berkeley County (submerged under Lake Moultrie). Plantation lands were originally located near present-day Bonneau. Plantation houses built in 1716, 1804 and a western wing added in 1852. Origin of Name: Native American. Earliest documented date of existence 1705. Land grant to Pierre de St. Julien de Malacare. Number of acres, 4000. Primary crop, Santee long cotton. 
Pooshee Plantation (historical) 1234600 Locale Berkeley SC 331901N 0800049W Chicora 75 – 01-MAY-1993. Has separate Cemeteries on Classifed “White” and the other  “Black.” Native Americans classed as Black.
 
San Miguel De Guadelupé (historical)-ID# 1232466, Populated Place, Georgetown, SC, 331941N, 0791539W, Georgetown South.
 
Old Santee Plantation-Location, Santee River, St. Stephen’s Parish, Berkeley County.
 
Curriboo Plantation-Location,  Berkeley County.
 
Peru Plantation-Location, St. Stephens Parish, Berkeley County. Portions on Black River, Georgetown County.
USGS:
Old Peru-ID#1234356, Populated Place, Berkeley, SC, 332514N 0795912W, Saint Stephen.
 
Sarazen Plantation-Location, Cooper River, Berkeley County (Submerged under Lake Moultrie). Other Names: Sarizins.  House built in 1826.
 
Egypt Plantation-Location, St. James Santee Parish, Berkeley County.
 
Cote Bas Plantation-Location, Cooper River, Moncks Corner, St. John’s Berkeley County 
(located off Bushy Park Road between the Back River and the Cooper River.)
 
Mexico Plantation-Location, Santee River, St. John’s Berkeley and St. Stephen’s Parish, Berkeley County (bordering the old Santee Canal). Primary crop, Sea island cotton.
USGS:
Mexico-ID#1231539, Populated Place, York, SC, 345617N 0810017W Rock Hill West. 
Mexico Cemetery-ID#1224463, Cemetery, Berkeley, SC, 332643N, 0800636W, Pineville.
 
Chachan Plantation-Location, Western branch of the Cooper River, Old Cordesville, Berkeley County ( off SC 44 Doctor Evans Road) on Chachan Road. Other Names: North Chacham. Earliest documented dated of existence, 1760. House built 1760. Primary crop, Rice.
Chachan Plantation Cemetery SC Berkeley cemetery 331003N 0795750W Cordesville 
Note: linguistically similar to the name of an ancient Peruvian Chimu Settlement, at Chanchan.
 
Salkehatchie River 1250734 Stream Hampton SC 324731N 0805247W Cummings.
 
Combahee River: Named for the Combahee Indians who formerly lived on this stream. Description: Heads at the junction of the Salkehatchie River and Little Salkehatchie Rivers, flows SE to the Coosaw River 17.7 km (11 mi) northeast of Beaufort. Citation
 
Note: The Combahee River was also called “The Jordan River.”
*Citation: Jordan River, Combiheh River,Combeheh River ; Salley, Alexander S., Jr., editor. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708. New York, New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1911.
*Citation: Salkehatchie River; U.S. Board on Geographic Names decisions, either decisions referenced
 
Hilton Documents Moorish Architecture In Early Carolina

Hilton, in the 1700s described enormous structures typical of Moorish Architecture left in Carolina. Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina.
 
Moorish/Muslim Mexico, Pacific States and the American Southwest

Further west, when the Padres began bringing Black Mexican Aboriginals to settle the Missions they brought with them Indios, Coyotes, Mulatos, Black Mexicans and Moriscos with names like Amezquita (meaning “To Mosque”), to settle  the California Missions from Baja, San Diego, San Luis Rey near Oceanside, San Juan Capistrano, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Buenaventura, San Luis Obispo, Santa Margarita, San Miguel, San Jose, Sonoma, Santa Clara, Solano, as well as San Francisco (in Alta California).
 
As the Padres set up the Mission systems from Loreto, Baja to San Francisco and even into Arizona, they documented the various descriptions and racial classifications of these settlers, which were (at the outset) Indios, Coyotes (Coyotl), Negro, Quebrado “Broken Black Color.”, Mulato, even Chino (Black with Asian features), Mestiza, Mestizo, people descended from mixed Black Ancestors (for instance Olmec, Mixtec, etc.), and español.
 
Even though the settling of the Missions represents a pivotal period of early Spanish/Mexican settlement of the Pacific West, we are no less awed by the fact that the most ancient prehistoric remains of an even earlier population of Black Aboriginals has been confirmed by modern forensic archaeological studies.
 
Mexico
Tenochtitlán is the original name of Mexico it was founded  in 1325 on an islet in the western part of lake Texcoco de Mora, which translates literally into “Our Coco people of Moors.” Nearby Mazatlan de los Mulattos it seems, was literally “the Birthplace of the Mulattos.
 
The Olmec mated with the Coyoatl or Coyoacan and produced a generation called Coyotes. The “Coyotes” figured prominently in the settler class of emigrating with the 
Padres in an effort to help establish settlements in their North America holdings, which were needed to fend off Russian encroachment of the Pacific West. It is clear that Coyotes had some type of African Ancestry. 
In the old text, “The Wild Tribes of Mexico“-Physical Features in Northern Mexico, p. 619; “The Tlascaltecs in 1568 wore cotton-cloth mantles painted in various fine colors. The Inhabitants of Cholula, according to Cortes dressed better than the Tlascaltecs; the better class wearing over their clothes a garment resembling the Moorish cloak, yet somewhat different, as that of the Cholula.
 
In the same book under “Dress in Michoacan, p. 622-623), the following description of a Turban appears; “”on the head a small red cloth arranged like a Turban, from which are pendent scarlet feathers, similar to those used by the ancient Aztec warriors.”
 
Esteban, the Moor Discovered New Mexico
 
1536-The most famous Moor in the hemisphere proper was Esteban de Dorantes (“a Black Arab”, a Native of Azemmour, Morocco), a survivor of the Narvaez Expedition to La Florida, who discovered what was (New Spain) and is now Southern New Mexico. He returned to Culiacan, Mexico with stories of having seen the Seven Cities of Cibola (Seven Cities of Gold). He was an “eslavo ladino “ of Andres Dorantes of Bejar del Castanar, Salamanca.
Eslavo Ladino, means a Slave and converted Christian.
 
Esteban, as he was now known, accompanied Dorantes. King Charles V of Spain granted him authority to settle all of La Florida, a territory that stretched from the southern tip of the Florida peninsula westward to the “Rio de las Palmas,” which is today’s Soto de la Marina River in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
 
Esteban (also, Estebanico) began his ascent into the Aboriginal Indian Country as one of only four survivors of the 600 members of the Narvaez Expedition in 1527-1528 to colonize La Florida.
Esteban’s survival of the Expedition and subsequent discovery of New Mexico is nothing short of miraculous and should be shouted from the rooftops and shared by other Moors.
 
According to Cabeza de Vaca, “we enjoyed a great deal of authority and dignity among [the Indians], and to maintain this we spoke very little to them. The black man always spoke to them, ascertaining which way to go and…all the other things we wanted to know.”
Note: [“Black Arab…Native of Azamor” by Kitty Morse, Saudi Aramco World, Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2002].] Al Zemmouri’s town is a Berber word for “wild olive tree.”
 
In 1539 Esteban’s purpose during this mission was to lead De Niza from the Island of Malhado (near the Bay of Galveston) to Cibola. Their personalities clashed, as De Niza did not relish the freedom the Moor felt in the Aboriginal Indian Country, nor the pleasant reception he received from the Indians. Esteban rode ahead of the Spaniard and “disappears” within the confines of the Zuni Pueblo. De Niza does not reach Zuni but is met by Indians who notify him of “the death” of Esteban.
European His-Story accounts contend that the New Mexico Indians killed Esteban (for various reasons) although his death was never observed, even those reporting it merely speculated that he had been killed and that is what they told the Spaniards. Did Esteban the Moor slip away as did De Soto’s Moors?
 
Coincidently, but apparently unrelated to Esteban the Moor, killed in their Pueblo (according to European His-Story); 
1. There is an actual “Cibola County” (not a rumor); 
2. The Acoma Pueblo is officially San Esteban del Rey de Acoma (literally, “Saint Stephen the King of Acoma“)
3. They too have an El Morro National Monument (the Moor National Monument), and 
4. Participate in an ancient Annual Feast honoring San Estevan.
 
Numerous Structures, including Missions of Moorish Architecture were described, painted and ultimately photographed as a testament to their style, influence and rightful place in this hemisphere bearing Colonies, Settlements and Communities inhabited by the subjects of the Kings of Morocco in this hemisphere. To banish this type of Architectural style is an arrogant insult to their memory, as well as the remnant of their host Nations.

The foregoing are but a mere sampling of my various works presented for your edification.
 
Sincerely,
Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman
 
 

 

 

Indigenous Black Native Americans

August 19th, 2011


  

MaatHalito and Greetings To All Whom These Blessing May Flow!
 
Blacklisted Native Americans
 
*Note: Follow the enclosed web-link to view surnames on the Native American Blacklist
“…And Justice”: Now this is something to march about!
  
Blacklisting Native Americans With African Blood
 
Wikipedia defines “blacklist” or “black list” as “a register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition.”
 
“As a verb, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle.”
 
“Conversely, a white list is a list or compilation identifying entities that are accepted, recognized, or privileged.” [Citation: Wikipedia, 2011]
 
Blacklist: “list of disapproved people: a list of people or groups who are under suspicion or excluded from something.” 
1.  put on blacklist: to add somebody’s name to a blacklist  
2.  condemn: to shun or condemn somebody for behavior that breaks implicit or explicit rules.” [Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2004] 
_________
 
McCarthy may have borrowed the “made in the USA” technique of “Blacklisting” from a program of deprivation (barely perceptible to the rest of humanity), but widely used across the United States to institutionalize the practice of robbing Native Americans suspected of having African Ancestry from the ability to claim their true Nationality. Black Indians were fined, imprisoned, ostracized and finally denied outright, their Creator given right to be who they were.
  
Now, Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., has obtained proof to support the claim that Blacklisting was used against Ethnic (Black) Indigenous Native Americans (and/or their descendants) first in America. Consider the following:
 
During the years 1942 and 1943, Walter Plecker lobbed a virulent salvo in the form of a Native American Blacklist straight into the heart of a petulant campaign pursued against Ethnic Native Americans having admixture of African Blood. His campaign was as pernicious as the historic Salem Witch Trials and more vicious than the McCarthy Era Anti-Communist Hollywood Blacklisting Campaign, because Plecker’s campaign, unleashed in the 20th Century, eschewed moral decency and demonstrated complete distain for millennia of natural ethnic identification.
 
Plecker’s campaign was the missing piece needed to convert official anti-Black Indian Policies into Procedures absorbed by the National Superstructure, in order to accomplish Deprivation of Nationality, complete denial and erasure of the true legal identity and Nationality in Public Records of the intended victims– Indigenous Ethnic Native Americans having African admixture. They created, in the process, a class of Ethnic Indians of no discernable ancestral connections, who were injected into a monolithic group of “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and “African Americans” stripped of Civil Rights, Treaty Rights and Human Rights.
 
What Plecker did will become apparent to you very shortly. Why Plecker chose to pursue this particular tactic, he admits in his letter , was that he felt certain these “mongrels” could use their “Indian“ identity to “pass through” to the “White” Race, and it was his mission (expanded to include all public officials) to prevent this from happening.
Mr. Plecker even fomented White hysteria by suggesting that the dirty deed was already happening and that responsible White individuals found complicit in the treachery would also be fined, jailed and ostracized as well.
 
Walter A. Plecker, M.D., State Registrar was a notorious adversary of Ethnic Native Americans having African Ancestry and a firm adherent/proponent of the “One Drop Rule.” He was also the very embodiment of an American racist and  vehement self-appointed anti-Ethnic (Black) Native American Czar, intent on denying them the Human Right to claim their true Nationality. He (literally) gave birth, life and vitality to the original dreaded term, “Blacklist” or “Black List”, in America.
 
Plecker’s Native American “Black List” crossed State lines and negatively influenced socio-political and economic relationships affecting Ethnic (Black) Native Americans, which continues to fester and plague Ethnic Native Americans having African admixture, to the present day.
Political Context
 
“The term blacklisting is generally used in a pejorative context, as it implies that someone has been prevented from having legitimate access due to the whims or judgments of another.”

“Ostracize a person from a certain social circle”
 
Older Americans may remember McCarthy-era Hollywood Blacklisting, as one of the most famous examples of blacklisting stemmed from an investigation launched in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) into Communist influence on the motion picture industry.
 
Fear Factor: Domino Effect

 


Ethnic Native Americans, having no Legal-Political Representation, faced Native American Blacklisting up close and personal. The domino effect, of course, meant that Blacklist identification affected all other aspects of life, including economic opportunities, followed individuals from State-to-State, affected Military Enrollment, mandated forced racial-ethnic reclassification on Birth and Death Certificates, as well as Marriage Licenses, as a matter of public policy.
 
As the pursuit of Black Indians crossed State Lines, the Domino effect meant that Plecker’s Policy became a National Program of Exclusion, it began to affect tribes (other than the original victims), including the 5 Civilized Tribes.
 

For instance; Indian Freedmen guaranteed 1866 Treaty Rights within the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations, found themselves excluded from benefiting in the 1983 Reagan-era Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives, because the birth certificates of subsequent generations of Ethnic Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles indicated that they were “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and “African Americans,” therefore, “they were not Indians.”
 
Finally, Plecker’s initiative, absorbed by the mainstrain, resulted in the modern exile of remaining descendants of original Indigenous Ethnic (Black) Native Americans and Freedmen from the Tribes, while the President, Congress, State Governments and everyday people stood idly by and let it happen, even in the face of Human Rights Laws demanding that Deprivation of Nationality and exile of a people based upon Race and Ethnicity is a worldwide crime against Humanity, for which Reparations must be made.
 
The only salvageable item produced by Plecker’s meticulously pursued Native American Blacklist, is that it provided a historical surname accounting of Native Americans, decreed Black by Plecker that might have been otherwise been lost in the obliteration of their true Nationality by institutionalized racism imbedded in American policies and procedures.
 
It also gave rise to researching of Ethnic Native Americans in Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, and Native American Plantations from New England to the Carolina Low Country.
 
Sincerely,
Dr. Angela Finley Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman
Representative and Spokesperson
Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc.
 
Web-link
Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc.
5 Tribes Embassy
View The New Internet Website of Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc. Our internet address is http://www.blackindiansunited5tribesembassy.org
 
Join Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc.
Support Our Mission
Inquire About Superior Fee-based Genealogy Research Services
 
Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund
2023 E. Randolph Avenue
Enid, Oklahoma 73701
580.234.3583

 

 

  


 

 

What To Indigenous People Is The Fourth of July?

December 17th, 2009

 

What To Ethnic (Black) Indigenous People Is The Fourth of July?
Independence Day For Whom?
 
The Fourth of July: A National Celebration Of Theft
Every year they celebrate the theft of the Chatuache of my ancient Fathers. Chatuache, America. With each passing decade, their heroism and their bravery in throwing off the yoke of British oppression, taxation without representation, their hostile takeover of the Aboriginal Indian Country and the enslavement of Aboriginal Indians and Imported Africans and their progeny who suffered uncompensated labor unto death, as the basis of their National U.S. Economy, while promoting the idea of liberty for their own Caucasoid kind…is celebrated Country Wide and thrown into the faces of the survivors of Aboriginal Genocide. Aboriginals and Africans in America that were never allowed to live under a state of Independence or Autonomy even though they fought valiantly (in the historic past) and presently (in the here and now) endowed by Treaty Rights to do so.
 
The Fourth of July: Promulgation Of The National Fear of Black
The illegal occupiers of the soil of Aboriginal Indian Country have been successful in the eyes of their God, in getting nearly every human being on the Planet to hate Black, the fourth color of the four directions. Perhaps they fear the truth in our speech. Whatever the reason, Sacred Black is no longer upheld and respected like Red, Yellow and White. We are out of balance. The Fourth of July celebrants have brought the majority of dwellers on the Great Turtle, to convert and become compliant enough to kneel before a Blue-eyed God who tolerates, encourages, continues to bless and absolve them of the guilt of their evil. They have created a people that hate their own Black, even their own ancient and historic Black Ancestors. A great many Bearers of the sacred color, Black, believe it to be a curse, rather than a Blessing given from the Grandfather of Ages. Instead they promote and idolize the RED, WHITE and BLUE-eyes of militaristic pilgrims.
 
The Fourth of July: Should Be Used To Learn Something New About The Original Proprietors Of The Soil
 
GODS=DOGS
LISTEN=SILENT
LIVE=EVIL 
 
You will hear; CHAHTA’S People (In Their Original Choctaw Language) Speak About Sacred Black…
LUSA=Black
LUSTI=Possessive Black, Pertaining To Our Blacks
CALUSA=Fierce Black
TUSCALUSA=Warrior Black; Black Warrior
NALUSA=Spirit Black
MOCHALUSA=Dark Brown like ancient Arabian Coffee from Yemen; Chocolate Black
 
Black as power, powerful to dawn, a motivator, causing trepidation and apprehension in our historic enemies. Black Drink (A powerful Aboriginal elixir), Black Warrior, Black Hawk, Black Sachem, Black Kettle, Black Jim (Notable Aboriginals in North America). Black Fellows (a name given Australian Aboriginals, which was frequently used by early eyewitness of North American Aborigines, as a means of comparison for some Tribal Bands).
From The Beginning…
Luke Chapter 13, Verses 29:30
29. “And they shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God.”
30. “And, behold, there are last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last.”
 
Negative is an American apparition, not here from the beginning, not Greek, not Latin, not translated, pure 20th Century. Gaining strength from the hate of Black. Generally taken from Caucasian paranoia, apprehension, dread or fear of a Black Planet.
 
“God has not given us a spirit of fear, but of power and of love.” II Timothy 1:7. Find a way to use his words to your own advantage, lest you perish by fears that do not come from the Creator.
 
The Fourth of July: Used By Ethnic Natives To Learn About The Historic Use of The Word Black
Black is a word given to all people in their natural language and mother tongue by the Creator. There is nothing ominous or sinister about it that needs to be avoided. In fact it is one of the most beautiful colors given to aboriginal peoples throughout the world to be included in the artwork from the Tibetan Monks to the Olmec Mother Culture of Central America. The Great Spirit gave Natives; the 4 directions and the 4 colors (red, yellow, black and white). Native prophecies and legends say that each color is dependent upon the other and that failure to protect one leads to the weakening and destruction of all the others. Black is a Color, Choctaw is a Race, therefore Black Choctaw is one of the powerful combinations the Grandfather of Ages put together. What he hath put together let no man put asunder.
 
My personal belief is that Black is one of the Great Spirit’s favorite colors and because of the near complete hate, avoidance and unreasonable extreme distancing of so many millions of people from his creation (the wonderful color Black), as being the reason it has taken prophecies about Black Indians so long to be revealed and completed.
 
Ancient Use of Black In The Old World
Ancient uses of the word Black can be traced back to the African Continent and the Old World where the word Ethiopia or Ethiopian was tantamount and equivalent to the word Black. This is also found in the Holy Bible. It is also featured in One of the oldest Greek literary works “The Book of Pliny” The Elder, translated from the Greek to English by C. Plinivus Philemon, which uses both the words Blacke and Ethiopian interchangeably. Melanesian also means Black Islands.

Hawaii Gallery #1

December 1st, 2009

[showtime]

Indigenous Rights Under International Law

August 20th, 2009